Dams · Floods

Overview of CWC Flood Forecasting Sites: North India

Flood forecasting is an important activity during monsoon, considering the huge and increasing flood prone area, flood frequency, extent and flood damages. Accurate and timely flood forecasting can hugely help reduce the damages due to floods. Central Water Commission (CWC) is the only agency responsible for flood forecasting in India. To understand the CWC’s flood forecasting better, we have compiled the list of the various flood, inflow forecasting sites and flood monitoring sites in India.

In this compilation, we have given state wise list of CWC’s flood forecasting, flood monitoring and inflow forecasting sites, along with available details like rivers, sub basin, river basin, Warning level, Danger Level, High Flood Level, Full Reservoir Level, Maximum Water Level. As we see below, there are many gaps in this basic information for the sites that are part of CWC’s list.

JAMMU AND KASHMIR There are 3 flood forecasting and 1 level monitoring site in Jammu & Kashmir. There is no inflow monitoring site in the state. HFL details for Khanabal site on Jhelum are not given where the hydrograph for the site is active.

List of Flood Forecasting Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin / Basin District WL, M DL, M HFL, M HFL Date
1 Sangam Jhelum Jhelum/ Indus Anantnag 1590.3 1591.2 1595.7 09-06-2014
2 Rammanushi bagh Jhelum Jhelum/ Indus Srinagar 1585.53 1586.45 1589.65 08-09-2014
3 Safapora Jhelum Jhelum/ Indus Baramula 1580.0 1580.5 1581.05 26-06-2015

Warning Level – WL; Danger Level – DL; High Flood Level – HFL; Meters – M

List of Level Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin / Basin District HFL (M) HFL Date
1 Khanabal Jhelum Jhelum/ Indus Anantnag NA NA

HIMACHAL PRADESH There are 1 flood forecasting and 16 level monitoring stations in Himachal Pradesh. Out of 16 level monitoring sites 6 are inactive. The Hanuman Chetty site shown in Chamba district is actually in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. The HFL details for 10 level monitoring sites are not provided.

Pandoa HP 28 July 2018
Pandoa Hydrograph showing sudden fall and rise of about 700 meter which is not possible. 

List Flood Forecasting Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin / Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Paonta Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Sirmaur 383.5 384.5 384.6 05-09-1995

 List of Level Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin / Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Hanuman Chetty[I] Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Chamba NA NA
2 Khab Satluj Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur NA NA
3 MOORANG Satluj Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur NA NA
4 TITANG Satluj Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur 2460.0 03-08-2005
5 POWARI Satluj Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur 1945.0 03-08-2005
6 NATHPA Satluj Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur 1451.0 03-08-2005
7 RAMPUR Satluj Satluj/ Indus Shimla 933.0 03-08-2005
8 PANDOA Satluj Satluj/ Indus Shimla 740.6 03-08-2005
9 Ropa Ropakhad Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur NA NA
10 Sangla Baspa Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur NA NA
11 Shalkhar Spiti Satluj/ Indus Kinnaur NA NA
12 Ghaluwal Swan Satluj/ Indus Una NA NA
13 Barshani Beas Beas/ Indus Kullu NA NA
14 KOTHI Beas Beas/ Indus Kullu NA NA
15 Jateon Barrage[II] Giri Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Sirmaur NA NA
16 Yaswant Nagar Giri Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Sirmaur 902.9 05-09-1995

UTTRAKHAND The state has 28 flood monitoring sites including 4 flood forecasting, 23 level monitoring and 1 inflow monitoring site. There is one inactive site in the state which is Harshil on Ganga river in Uttarkashi district.

List Flood Forecasting Sites

SN Site River Sub Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Ganga Nagar Mandakani Alaknanda/  Ganga Chamoli 803.0 804.0 808.0 16-06-2013
2 Rishikesh Ganga U Ganga/  Ganga Dehradun 339.5 340.5 341.72 05-09-1995
3 Haridwar Ganga U Ganga/  Ganga Haridwar 293.0 294.0 296. 3 17-06-2013
4 Srinagar Alaknanda Alaknanda/  Ganga Garhwal 535.0 536.0 537.9 17-06-2013
Koteshwar 21 July CWC
Koteshwar Hydrograph showing strange water level pattern. 

List of Level Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub Basin/  Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Bhikiasen Ramganga Ramganga/ Ganga Almora 791.2 17-09-2010
2 Kalagarh Ramganga Ramganga/ Ganga Garhwal 263.67 19-09-2010
3 Badrinath Alaknanada Alaknanda /        Ganga Chamoli 3112.7 01-08-2007
4 Joshimath Alaknanda Alaknanda /        Ganga Chamoli 1385.54 28-06-2013
5 Rudraprayag (A) Alaknanda Alaknanda /        Ganga Rudraprayag 634.85 17-06-2013
6 Rudraprayag (Conf) Alaknanda Alaknanda /        Ganga Rudraprayag 633.0 17-06-2013
7 Uttarkashi Bhagirathi-1 Bhagirathi /        Ganga Uttarkashi 1124.13 06-08-1978
8 Deoprayag (B) Bhagirathi-1 Bhagirathi /        Ganga Tehri-Garhwal 474.5 17-06-2013
9 Koteshwar Bhagirathi-1 Bhagirathi /        Ganga Tehri-Garhwal 546.7 15-08-2013
10 Harshil Bhagirathi-1 Bhagirathi /        Ganga Uttarkashi NA NA
11 Marora Nyar Ramganga/ Ganga Chamoli 556.6 12-09-1993
12 Nandkeshri Pinder Alaknanda /        Ganga Chamoli 1267.4 17-06-2013
13 Karnaprayag Pinder Alaknanda /        Ganga Chamoli 774.05 17-06-2013
14 Jouljibi Sarda Ghagra/ Ganga Pithoragarh 607.6 17-06-2013
15 GHAT Sarda Ghagra/ Ganga Pithoragarh 472.0 16-08-2011
16 Pancheshwar Sarda Ghagra/ Ganga Champawat 432.5 16-08-2011
17 Rudraprayag (M) Mandakani Alaknanda / Ganga Rudraprayag 634.0 17-06-2013
18 Haripur Tons South Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Dehradun 482.48 25-09-1988
19 Tuini (Pabar) Pabar Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Dehradun 931.88 25-09-1988
20 Tuini (Tons) Tons Upper Yamuna / Ganga Dehradun 904.0 24-09-1988
21 Deoprayag (G) Ganga U Ganga /        Ganga Garhwal 472.5 17-06-2013
22 Kanjyoti Dhuilganga Ghagra /        Ganga Pithoragarh NA NA
23 Naugaon Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Uttarkashi 1060.4 11-09-2010

 List of Inflow Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District FRL MWL
1 Banbasa Sarda Ghagara / Ganga Champawat NA NA[III]

PUNJAB, Chandigarh No flood forecasting, level monitoring and inflow monitoring sites are there from Punjab or Chandigarh.

HARYANA There are 1 flood forecasting, 3 level monitoring and 1 inflow site in the state. Tajewala Wier site (Hathinikund) is also mentioned in CWC list but the site is inactive and on CWC, Data Flow Map link it is shown far away from the actual location. The weir has been completely destroyed by the 2010 floods in River Yamuna.

HKB sites shown wrongly on CWC map
Hathini Kund and Taje Wala both sites should be shown in Yamuna Nagar on Yamuna river though Tajewala structure is no more there.  

List of Flood Forecasting Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Karnal Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Karnal 248.8 M 249.5 M 250.07 17-06-2013

The CWC’s Standard Operating Procedure document for flood forecasting for 2018[IV], however, gives the HFL as 250.01m, crossed on19.09.2010.

List of Level Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL (M) HFL Date
1 Mohna Yamuna Middle Yamuna/ Ganga Faridabad 193.13 M 06-09-1978
2 Masani Yamuna Middle Yamuna/ Ganga Rewari 242.58 M NA
3 Dadri Sahibi Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Jhajjar 214.98 M 26-08-2008

List of Inflow Monitoring sites

SN Sites River Sub-Basin/ Basin District FRL MWL
1 Hathinikund Barrage Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Yamuna Nagar NA NA[V]

 DELHI- Delhi has 3 sites including 2 flood forecasting and 1 level monitoring.

List of Flood Forecasting Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Delhi Railway Bridge Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga North 204.0 204.83 207.49 06-09-1978
2 Dhansa Sahibi Upper Yamuna/ Ganga South West 211.44 212.44 213.58 06-08-1977

 List of Level Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL (M) HFL Date
1 Palla Yamuna Upper Yamuna/           Ganga North West 212.275 M 00-09-1988[VI]

UTTAR PRADESH- There are 37 flood forecasting, 47 level monitoring and 3 inflowing monitoring sites in Uttar Pradesh. 4 of level monitoring are not active and 1 of inflow monitoring sites are not fully active in the state.

List of Flood Forecasting Sites

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL (M) HFL Date
1 Mawi Yamuna Upper Yamuna/           Ganga Muzzafar Nagar 230.0 230.85 232.75 18-06-2013
2 Mathura (Prayag Ghat) Yamuna Middle Yamuna/ Ganga Mathura 165.2 166.0 169.73 08-09-1978
3 Agra (J.B.) Yamuna Middle Yamuna/ Ganga Agra 151.4 152.4 154.76 09-09-1978
4 Etawah Yamuna Middle Yamuna/ Ganga Etawah 120.92 121.92 126.13 11-09-1978
5 Auraiya Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Auraiya 112.0 113.0 118.19 25-08-1996
6 KALPI Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Jalaun 107.0 108.0 112.98 25-08-1996
7 SHAHIJINA Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Hamirpur 103.54 104.54 108.67 NA
8 HAMIRPUR Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Hamirpur 102.63 103.63 108.59 12-09-1983
9 CHILLAGHAT Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Banda 99.0 100.0 105.16 06-09-1978
10 NAINI Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Allahabad 83.74 84.73 87.99 08-09-1978
11 MOHANA Betwa Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Jalaun 121.66 122.66 133.35 11-09-1983
12 BANDA Ken Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Banda 103.0 104.0 113.29 07-07-2005
13 Garhmukteshwar Ganga Above Ramganga Confluence/ Ganga Gaziabad 198.33 199.33 199.9 23-09-2010
14 Kachhlabridge Ganga Above Ramganga Confluence/ Ganga Badaun 161.0 162.0 162.79 24-09-2010
15 Fatehgarh Ganga Above Ramganga Confluence/ Ganga Farrukhabad 136.6 M 137.6 138.14 26-09-2010
16 Kannauj Ganga Upstream of Gomti confluence to Muzaffarnagar (UGCM)/ Ganga Kannauj 124.97 125.97 126.78 27-09-2010
17 Ankinghat Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Kanpur 123.0 124.0 124.49 28-09-2010
18 Kanpur Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Kanpur (Urban) 112.0[VII] 114.0 114.08 29-09-2010
19 Dalmau Ganga Gomati/ Ganga Raibareli 98.36 99.36 99.84 03-08-1973
20 Ayodhya Ganga Ghagara/ Ganga Faizabad 91.73 92.73 94.01 11-10-2009
21 PHAPHAMAU[VIII] Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Allahabad 83.734 84.734 87.98 08-09-1978
22 MIRZAPUR Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Mirzapur 76.724 77.724 80.34 09-09-1978
23 VARANASI Ganga Ghaghara Confluence to Gomti confluence/ Ganga Varanasi 70.262 71.262 73.901 09-09-1978
24 GHAZIPUR Ganga Ghaghara Confluence to Gomti confluence/ Ganga Ghazipur 62.105 63.102 65.22 09-09-1978
25 BALLIA Ganga Ghagara/ Ganga Ballia 56.615 57.615 60.39 25-08-2016
26 Khadda Gandak Ghagara/ Ganga Kushinagar 95.0 96.0 97.5 23-07-2002
27 Lucknow (Hanuman Setu) Gomti Gomati/ Ganga Lucknow 108.5 109.5 110.85 11-09-1971
28 JAUNPUR Gomti Gomati/ Ganga Jaunpur 73.066 74.066 77.738 22-09-1971
29 Elginbridge Ghagra Ghagara/ Ganga Bara Banki 105.07 106.07 107.616 16-08-2014
30 Turtipar Ghagra Ghagara/ Ganga Ballia 63.01 64.01 66.0 28-08-1998
31 Balrampur Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Balrampur 103.62 104.62 105.54 15-08-2017
32 Bansi Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Sidharthnagar 83.9 84.9 85.88 20-08-2017
33 Birdghat Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Gorakhpur 73.98 74.98 77.54 23-08-1998
34 Bareilly Ramganga Ramganga/ Ganga Bareilly 162.07 163.07 162.881 06-08-1978
35 Ramganga Moradabad[IX] Ramganga Ramganga/ Ganga Moradabad 189.6 190.6 192.88 21-09-2010
36 Dabri Ramganga Ramganga/ Ganga Sahajahanpur 136.3 137.3 139.695 28-09-1983
37 Rae Bareli[X] Sai Gomati/ Ganga Rae Bareli 100.0 101.0 104.81 M 17-09-1982
Matatila
Hydrograph of Matatila site on Betwa river has no inputs. 

List of Level Monitoring Sites

SN Site River  Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL,M HFL Date
1 Kalanaur Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Saharanpur 268.66 08-09-2010
2 PRATAPPUR Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Allahabad 90.1 08-09-1978
3 Baghpat Yamuna Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Baghpat 217.18 27-08-1988
4 RAJAPUR Yamuna Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Chitrakoot 96.37 07-09-1978
5 Mathura (Gokul Barrage) Yamuna Middle Yamuna/ Ganga Mathura 166.17 26-09-2010
6 Galeta Hindon Upper Yamuna/ Ganga Baghpat 217.72 04-09-1978
7 UDI Chambal Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Etawah 128.4 24-08-1996
8 NAUTGHAT Betwa Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Jhansi 207.99 01-09-1983
9 Matatila Betwa Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Lalitpur NA NA
10 AKBARPUR Choti Saryu Ghagara/ Ganga Ambedkar Nagar 86.35 15-09-2000
11 AZAMGARH Choti Saryu Ghaghara Confluence to Gomti confluence/ Ganga Azamgarh 75.0 25-08-2005
12 B.K.Ghat Ghagra Ghagara/ Ganga Bahraich 137.44 22-08-1963
13 Gaighat Sarju (Babal) Ghagara/ Ganga Bahraich 132.45 NA
14 Colonelganj Sarju (Babal) Ghagara/ Ganga Gonda 105.28 15-09-1982
15 Kakardhari Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Bahraich 132.37 15-08-2014
16 Regauli Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Gorakhpur 82.12 16-09-2000
17 Bhinga Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Shrawasti 120.3 15-08-2014
18 Kakrahi Burhi Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Sidharthnagar 88.97 22-08-1998
19 Uskabazar Burhi Rapti Ghagara/ Ganga Sigharthnagar 85.62 21-08-1998
20 Basti Kwano Ghagara/ Ganga Basti 84.62 23-08-1998
21 Chandradeepghat Kwano Ghagara/ Ganga Gonda 92.04 16-07-1989
22 Mukhlispur Kwano Ghagara/ Ganga Sant Kabir Nagar 79.84 27-08-1998
23 Narora Down Stream Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Bulandshahr 180.01 23-09-2010
24 Bhitaura Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Fatehpur NA NA
25 SHAHJADPUR Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Kaushambi 90.42 09-09-1978
26 SITAMARHI Ganga UGCM/ Ganga Sant Ravidas Nagar 81.2 26-08-2013
27 MEJA ROAD Tons UGCM/ Ganga Allahabad 88.18 07-09-1978
28 NARHAN Karmanasa Ghaghara Confluence to Gomti confluence/ Ganga Chandauli 75.73 25-09-2011
29 Hetimpur Little Gandak Ghagara/ Ganga Deoria 79.64 06-09-2001
30 Salempur Little Gandak Ghagara/ Ganga Deoria 67.55 23-09-1994
31 Trimohinighat Rohin Ghagara/ Ganga Maharajganj 85.48 15-08-2017
32 Maniram Rohin Ghagara/ Ganga Gorakhpur 78.16 19-08-2017
33 Bani Sai Gomati/ Ganga Lucknow 116.5 26-09-1985
34 PARTAPGARH Sai Gomati/ Ganga Pratapgarh 85.23 16-09-1986
35 JALALPUR Sai Gomati/ Ganga Jaunpur 76.23 31-08-1980
36 Neemsar Gomti Gomati/ Ganga Sitapur 129.08 21-09-1958
37 Bhatpurwaghat Gomti Gomati/ Ganga Sitapur 115.55 20-09-1960
38 SULTANPUR Gomti Gomati/ Ganga Sultanpur 89.455 18-09-1971
39 MAIGHAT Gomti Gomati/ Ganga Jaunpur 74.96 01-09-1980
40 Paliakalan Sarda Ghagara/ Ganga Kheri 155.32 21-07-2014
41 Motipur Sarda Ghagara/ Ganga Kheri 141.42 29-07-1984
42 Sardanagar Sarda Ghagara/ Ganga Kheri 136.55 16-09-1993
43 KAIMAHA Urmil Lower Yamuna/ Ganga Mahoba 215.2 16-08-2008
44 Bewar Kali UGCM/ Ganga Mainpuri NA NA
45 Rampur Kosi Ramganga/ Ganga Rampur NA NA
46 CHOPAN Son Son/ Ganga Sonbhadra 175.61 22-08-1975
47 DUDHHI Kanhar Son/ Ganga Sonbhadra 210.54 13-08-2016

List of Inflow Monitoring Sites

SN Site River Sub Basin/ Basin District FRL MWL
1 Dharamnagari       Barrage Ganga Above Ramganga Confluence/ Ganga Bijnor NA NA
2 NARORA[XI] Ganga Above Ramganga Confluence/ Ganga Bulandshahr 178.42 178.42
3 Rihand Dam[XII] Rihand Son/ Ganga Sonbhadra 268.22 268.75

Summary:- Overall there are 144 CWC sites in 7 states of North India comprising of 48 Level forecasting, 91 level monitoring and 6 inflow measuring sites. Out of 144 sites 13 sites are inactive including 11 level monitoring and 2 inflow monitoring. With 87, Uttar Pradesh state has highest number of sites followed by Uttrakhand (28) and Himachal Pradesh (17). There is no CWC station in Punjab whereas Delhi has 3, Jammu & Kashmir has 4 and Haryana state has 5 such sites. Of 11 inactive level monitoring sites 6 are in Himachal, 1 in Uttarakhand and 4 in Uttar Pradesh.

In most of the inflow forecast sites, the full information including level, inflow, outflow through canal, outflow through river is not given. It is also unclear at what stage the inflow forecast is triggered. Even the CWC’s Standard Operating Procedure of flood forecasting this year does not throw light on this, except vaguely stating that this is triggered by threshold values, not mentioning what are the threshold values for different cases.

Table of Level Forecasting, Level Monitoring and Inflow Forecast Sites in North Indian States

States Flood Forecast

Sites

Level Monitoring

Sites

Inflow Forecast

Sites

Total
Active Inactive Active Inactive Active Inactive
Jammu & Kashmir 3 0 1 0 0 0 4
Himachal Pradesh 1 0 10 6 0 0 17
Uttrakhand 4 0 22 1 1 0 28
Punjab 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Haryana 1 0 3 0 1 0 5
Delhi 2 0 1 0 0 0 3
Uttar Pradesh 37 0 43 4 3 0 87
Total 48 0 80 11 5 0 144
Grand Total 48 91 5 144

CWC North India

MAJOR GAPS There are major gaps that we can see in CWC’s flood forecasting in North India.

  • For example, CWC has no sites in Punjab and Chandigarh.
  • In whole of Chenab basin that spans across Himachal Pradesh and J&K, CWC has no sites.
  • Even in Sujlej, Ravi and Beas basins, CWC has no flood forecasting sites.
  • In Sutlej and Beas basins, it has some flood monitoring sites, but in Ravi Basin, CWC does not have a single monitoring site.
  • In whole of Uttarakhand, CWC has no flood forecasting sites in Bhagirathi, Ramganga, Sharda or Yamuna basins. The only Level Forecasting sites it has, are two on Ganga and one each on Alaknanda and Mandakini sub basins.
  • In whole of Ghaggar Basin, spanning from Himachal Pradesh through Chandigarh, Punjab, Haryana, and then beyond North India, CWC has no sites at all. This basin suffered huge floods less than a decade ago.

There are many other issues with respect to the actual flood forecasting and monitoring by CWC and its website, which are not dealt here.

A SANDRP analysis (ht.sandrp@gmail.com)

To see, Overviews of CWC Flood Forecasting Sites in North East and East India; kindly visit

Overview of CWC Flood Forecasting Sites: North East India

Overview of CWC Flood Forecasting Sites; East India

End Notes:

  1. The sites shown with RED colour are inactive and the sites which have no WL, DL, HFL data but have active Hydro Graph are mention with GREEN colour.
  2. Abbreviations List:

Warning Level- WL

Danger Level- DL

Full Reservoir Level- FRL

Maximum Water Level –MWL

High Flood Level- HFL

Meters- M

[I] This site is in Uttarkashi on Hamuman Ganga.

[II] Only current water level is showing in Hydrograph.

[III] 222.3 M is mentioned as WL & 223.3 M as DL, HFL on 18-06-2013.

[IV] http://cwc.gov.in/main/downloads/SOP_Flood_Forecasting_April2018.pdf

[V] 338.9 M is mentioned as HFL on 17-06-2013 in data flow map

[VI] Taken from Palla flood monitoring station of Delhi Govt.

[VII] The SOP document gives warning level for Kanpur at 113, but the FF site gives it as 112 m. 

[VIII] There are 3 more sites Phaphamau, Allahabad (Chhatang), ALLAHABAD with same WL, DL, HFL in Allahabad

[IX] There is on more site Moradabad with same WL, DL, HFL on Ramganga. It is inactive.

[X] There is one more site Rae Bareli Duplicate with same WL, DL, HFL detail. It is shown on Ganga river and is inactive.

[XI] Hydrograph is not showing Inflow Outflow.

[XII] Inflow is shown and not the outflow.

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