Dams · Floods

Overview of CWC’s Flood Monitoring & Forecasting in North East India

Central Water Commission (CWC) measures and monitors water level at 700 hundred Flood Forecasting site in the country. It publishes this information on its Flood Forecast website[I]. The website has three ways to get this information: Data Flow Map, List Based Exploration, and Hydrograph view. The Hydrograph view provides information for past 72 hours, supposed to be updated every hour. This is in addition to the list of current forecasts.

As per the website the Data Flow Map has information about 226 Flood Forecast Sites in the country comprising of 166 Level Forecast Sites and 60 Inflow Forecast Sites. It also monitors 700 Flood sites, information made available through List Based Exploration and Hydrograph View.

In order to better understanding the CWC’s flood monitoring and forecasting work, in this article we have given state wise list of CWC’s Level Forecast, Inflow Forecast and level monitoring sites in North East India. For better understanding, we have also included part of West Bengal that is in Brahmaputra basin here, in addition to the 8 North Eastern states. Similar report has been published for North India[II] and we hope to publish reports covering other regions of India too.

ARUNACHAL PRADESH There are 2 Flood Forecasting sites and 9 Flood monitoring sites in Arunachal Pradesh. There is no Inflow Forecasting site. China Bridge Flood Monitoring site on Manas river in Tawang district is inactive.

List Level Forecasting Sites in Arunachal Pradesh

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Passighat Siang Siang / Brahmaputra East Siang 152.96 153.96 157.54 11-06-2000
2 Namsai Lohit Lohit/ Brahmaputra Lohit 140.6 141.1 144.46 07-10-1979

 List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Arunachal Pradesh

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Tuting Siang Siang / Brahmaputra Upper Siang 420.43 06-09-2010
2 Lemeking Subansiri Subansiri / Brahmaputra Upper Subansiri 1107.16 27-07-2016
3 Daporizo Subansiri Subansiri / Brahmaputra Upper Subansiri 213.9 15-10-1987
4 Kibithu Lohit Lohit/ Brahmaputra Anjaw 1229.8 25-07-2016
5 Tezu Lohit Lohit/ Brahmaputra Lohit 192.14 16-07-1996
6 Seppa Kameng Kameng / Brahmaputra East Kameng 342.6 26-06-1998
7 Bhalukpong Kameng Kameng / Brahmaputra West Kameng 141.79 16-06-1989
8 China Bridge* Tawang Tawang / Brahmaputra Tawang NA NA
9 Miao Nao Dehing Nao Dehing / Brahmaputra Changlang 241.57 09-07-2004

ASSAM Over all there are 62 sites comprising of 29 Level Forecasting and 33 Flood monitoring sites in Assam. The sites shown in Red colour are inactive and the sites shown in Green colour has no HFL data but the Hydrograph for these sites are active. No Inflow Forecasting site in Assam is listed on CWC FF website, however, CWC’s Standarad Operating Procedure for Flood Forecasting in 2018 lists one: Lower Subansiri site on Subansiri river in Dhemaji district. That site seems non functional.

List of Level Forecasting Sites in Assam

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Dholabazar Lohit Lohit/ Brahmaputra Tinsukia 127.27 128.27 130.7  22-09-2012
2 NAHARKATIA Buridehing Buridehing/ Brahmaputra Dibrugarh 119.4 120.4 122.69 17-06-1973
3 Chenimari (Khowang) Buridehing Neodihing/ Upper Brahmaputra Dibrugarh 101.11 102.11 104.16 02-09-2015
4 Dibrugarh Brahmaputra Upper Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Dibrugarh 104.7 105.7 106.48 03-09-1998
5 Chouldhowaghat Subansiri Subansiri/ Brahmaputra Lakhimpur 99.43 100.43 101.31 27-07-1972
6 Ranganadi NT Rd Xing Ranganadi Teesta/ Brahmaputra Lakhimpur 93.81 94.81 95.92 02-07-1979
7 Naglamoraghat Desang Upper Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Sibsagar 93.46 94.46 96.49 06-09-1998
8 Sivasagar Dikhow Dikhow/ Brahmaputra Sibsagar 91.4 92.4 94.19 25-06-1998
9 Golaghat Dhansiri (S) Dhansiri/  Brahmaputra Golaghat 88.5 89.5 92. 45 11-10-1986
10 Neamatighat Brahmaputra Upper Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Jorhat 84.04 85.04 87.37 11-07-1991
11 Badatighat Subansiri Subansiri/ Brahmaputra Lakhimpur 81.53 82.53 86.21 28-07-1972
12 Numaligarh Dhansiri (S) Dhansiri/ Brahmaputra Golaghat 76.42 77.42 79.87 24-09-1985
13 NT Crossing Jia Bharali Jiabharali Kameng/  Brahmaputra Sonitpur 76.00 77.00 78.5 26-07-2007
14 Tezpur Brahmaputra Lower Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Sonitpur 64.23 65.23 66.59 27-08-1988
15 Kampur Kopili Lower Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Nagaon 59.5 60.5 61.79 20-07-2004
16 Dharamtul[III] Kopili Lower Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Marigaon 55.0 56.0 58.9 21-07-2004
17 Pagladiya NT Rd Xing Pagladiya Pagladiya/ Brahmaputra Nailbari 51.75 52.75 55.45 08-07-2004
18 Puthimari NH Rd Xing Puthimari Puthimari/ Brahmaputra Kamrup 50.81 51.81 55.08 31-08-2008
19 Guwahati (DC Court) Brahmaputra Dhansiri/ Brahmaputra Kamrup 48.68 49.68 51.46 21-07-2004
20 Manas NH Crossing Manas Manas/ Brahmaputra Barpeta 47.81 48.42 50.08 15-09-1984
21 Beki Road Bridge Beki Beki/ Brahmaputra Barpeta 44.1 45.1 46.2   04-08-2000
22 Kokrajhar Gaurang Champabati/ Brahmaputra Kokrajhar 41.85 42.85 43.06 20-08-2015
23 Gaolpara Brahmaputra Dhansiri South/ Brahmaputra Gaolpara 35.27 36.27 37.43 31-07-1954
24 Golokgunj Sankosh Sankosh/ Brahmaputra Dubri 28.94 29.94 30.95 08-09-2007
25 Dhubri Brahmaputra Lower Brahmaputra/ Brahmaputra Dhubri 27.62 28.62 30.36 01-08-1989
26 Matizuri Katakhal Katakhal/ Barak Hailakandi 19.27 20.27 22.73 10-09-2007
27 Annapurna ghat Barak Barak / Barak Cachar 18.83 19.83 21.84 02-09-1989
28 Badarpurghat Barak Barak / Barak Cachar 15.85 16.85 18.48 11-09-2007
29 Karimganj Kushiyara Barak/ Barak Karimganj 13.94 14.94 16.57 10-06-2010

List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Assam

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Matunga Kalanadi Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Nailbari 168.18 19-07-1980
2 DRF Puthumari Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Nailbari 144.3 28-08-1988
3 Margherita Buridehing Neo dehing/ Brahmaputra Tinsukia 137.51 26-08-1988
4 Bokajan Dhansiri South Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Karbi Anglong 135.13 09-10-1986
5 Dillighat Desang Upper Brahmaputra/ B’putra Dibrugarh 129.65 28-08-1977
6 Desangpani Desang Upper Brahmaputra/ B’putra Sibsagar 106. 26 24-04-2016
7 Bihubar Dikhow Upper Brahmaputra/  B’putra Sibsagar 104.77 24-06-1998
8 Mathanguri Manas Manas/ Brahmaputra Barpeta 102.28 30-10-1973
9 Gelabil Doyang Dhansiri/ Brahmaputra Golaghat 101. 5 18-06-1985
10 Suklai Siklai Dhansiri/ Brahmaputra Kamrup 76.18 12-09-1983
11 Kheronighat Kopili Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Karbi Analong 74.07 19-07-2004
12 Bhomoraguri Brahmaputra Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Sonitpur 67.18 13-08-2017
13 PANBARI Manas Manas/ Brahmaputra Barpeta 55.96 28-08-1980
14 PANCHARATNA Manas Manas/ Brahmaputra Goalpara NA NA
15 AIE NH XING Aie Beki/ Brahmaputra Barpeta 53.26 21-08-2015
16 Pandu Brahmaputra Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Kamrup 49.88 06-09-1998
17 Gharmura Dhaleswari Dolasor[IV]/ Barak Hailakandi 36.3 31-07-1989
18 BAHALPUR Champamati Champabati/ Brahmaputra Barpeta 35.8 15-06-1995
19 DUDHNAI Dudhnai Lower Brahmaputra/ B’putra Goalpara NA NA
20 KULSI Kulsi Dhansiri/ Brahmaputra Kamrup NA NA
21 SONAPUR Digaru Dhansiri/ Brahmaputra Kamrup NA NA
22 Monierkhal Sonai Barak/ Barak Cachar 32.18 01-08-1989
23 DHOLAI Rukni Barak/ Barak Cachar 28.24 22-07-1993
24 Kulichera Rukni Barak/ Barak Cachar NA NA
25 Amraghat Barak Barak/ Barak Cachar 29.99 31-07-1989
26 Lakhipur Barak Barak/ Barak Cachar 26.96 31-07-1989
27 Fulertal Barak Barak/ Barak Cachar 26.39 21-07-2004
28 TULARGRAM Sonai Barak/ Barak Cachar 24.73 01-08-1989
29 Kashithal Sonai Barak/ Barak Cachar NA NA
30 AP Ghat Barak Barak/ Barak Cachar 21.763 11-09-2007
31 FAKIRABAZAR Barak Barak/ Barak Karimpur 18.575 12-05-1991
32 B.P.Ghat Barak Barak/ Barak Karimpur 18.48 12-09-2007
33 GUMRA Kushiyara Barak/ Barak Cachar 18.35 25-06-1988
Snapshot of CWC FF site in Assam shows state as Boihar and Dist Motihari 010818.png
CWC Data Flow Map wrongly showing Assam’s Shivsagar site in Motihari district of Bihar, once this anomaly was brought to the notice of flood forecasting division of CWC by SANDRP on CWC FF’s twitter account, they corrected it and removed the duplicate name from the map. 

MEGHALAYA Meghalaya has 7 Level Monitoring sites only. Out of these 7 sites 2 shown with Red colour are inactive.

List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Meghalaya

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Dawki Umngot Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  East Khasi Hills 73.47 28-05-2006
2 THERRIAGHAT Umnohryngkew Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  East Khasi Hills 20.62 15-06-1995
3 Kharkhana Myntudu Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  East Khasi Hills 47.0 23-04-1995
4 Myndu Stage II, Dam Site Brahmaputra Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  Jaintia Hills NA Na
5 Myntdu Stage-II power house Barak Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  Jaintia Hills NA NA
6 Dimapara Bugi Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  South Garo Hills 29.75 27-07-2007
7 SIBBARI Dareng Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers/  South Garo Hills 20.34 12-08-2017

MANIPUR Manipur state has only 1 Flood monitoring site. There is no Level and Inflow Forecasting site in the state.

List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Manipur

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Chotebekra Barak Barak / Barak Imphal East 32.1 31-07-1989

TRIPURA Tripura State has 2 Level Forecasting and 10 Flood Monitoring Sites. The Sonamura site on Gumti river is mentioned 3 times in the CWC website. There is no Inflow Forecasting site in Tripura.

List of Level Forecasting Sites in Tripura

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 Kailashahar Manu Naochchara and others North Tripura 24.34 25.34 25.79 07-06-1993
2 Sonamura Gumti Naochchara and others West Tripura 11.5 12.5 14.43 23-07-1993

List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Tripura

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Kamalpur GDS Sit Dhalai Naochchara and others Dhalai 33.85 15-05-1984
2 Kumarghat GD Manu Naochchara and others North Tripura 32.97 07-06-1993
3 Manughat Manu Naochchara and others North Tripura 46.6 05-06-2001
4 Kailashahar GDSQ Manu Naochchara and others Unakoti 25.795 07-06-1993
5 Nutan Bazar GD Juri Naochchara and others North Tripura 20.435 15-05-1984
6 Amarpur Barak Barak / Barak South Tripura 32.74 22-07-1993
7 Belonia Muhuri Barak / Barak South Tripura 16.98 04-08-1983
8 GAJARAIA Burima Kynchiang and other south flowing rivers sub-basin West Tripura 11.15 24-06-2004
9 HAORA Haora Naochchara and others West Tripura 12.14 24-06-2004
10 KHOWAI Khowai Naochchara and others West Tripura 28.005 24-06-2004

Kailashahar Tripura 130618

Kailashahar Tripura 130618 2
Hydrograph for Kailashahar site, Tripura showing two different level for the site on same day. 

MIZORAM There are 7 Flood Monitoring sites in Mizoram. Out of these, 5 sites shown in Red colour are inactive. The CWC web site shows active hydrograph for Sairang site on Dhaleswari river though the list based exploration sheet lacks HFL data about the site. There are not level or inflow forecasting sites in Mizoram.

List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Mizoram

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Sairang Dhaleswari Barak/ Barak Aizawl NA NA
2 Turial Barak Barak/ Barak Aizawl 149.0 17-06-1995
3 Bailley Bridge Tuipui Barak Barak/ Barak Champhai NA NA
4 Sihthangpui Kolodyne[V] Kolodyne/ Barak Lawngtlai NA NA
5 Keitum Tlawng[VI] Barak/ Barak Lunglei NA NA
6 Tuichang Tuichang Barak/ Barak Lunglei NA NA
7 Tuichawng Tuichang Barak/ Barak Lunglei NA NA

SIKKIM CWC’s FF web site lists no Level Forecasting sites in Sikkim, though the CWC’s Standard Operating Procedure for Flood Forecasting in 2018 lists three Sikkim sites among its Level Forecasting sites: Malli Bazar (South Sikkim Dist), Jorethang (South Sikkim Dist) and Singtam (East Sikkim Dist). All three are thus non functional. The state has 18 Flood Monitoring sites out that 14 sites which are shown in red colour are not active. Similarly, the CWC FF website lists 4 Inflow Forecasting sites in Sikkim but only one site is active. Even the one site that is active is not fully functional as it does now show outflow on the hydrograph. Moreover, CWC’s SOP document lists a fifth site under inflow forecasting, namely Teesta V HEP Dam at Singtam in East Sikkim district. This again is not working.

List of Flood Monitoring Sites in Sikkim

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Sankalan Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra North 762.3 16-06-1973
2 Rangpo Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra South 304.6 26-07-1972
3 KHANITAR Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra East 297.7 18-09-1974
4 Majitar Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra South 279.29 17-10-1985
5 Chujachen

(Rongli Chu)

Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra East NA NA
6 Rorathang Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra East NA NA
7 Singtham Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra East NA NA
8 Bakcha chu Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA
9 Chungthang (Lachen Chu) RR Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA
10 Dickchu Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA
11 Lachen Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA
12 Sankalang Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA
13 Melli Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra South NA NA
14 Kalez Khola (Toyum) Teesta Teesta/ Brahmaputra West NA NA
15 Rothak (Jorethang) Rangit Teesta/ Brahmaputra West NA NA
16 Sagbari Rangit Teesta/ Brahmaputra West NA NA
17 Upper Rimbi Rangit Teesta/ Brahmaputra West NA NA
18 Cungthang Bop Lachung Chu Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA

List of inflow forecasting sites in Sikkim

SN Sites River Sub-Basin/ Basin District FRL MWL
1 Rangit 3 Dam Rangit Teesta/ Brahmaputra West NA NA
2 Rangpo Dam Rangpochu Teesta/ Brahmaputra East NA NA
3 Rongli Dam Rangpochu Teesta/ Brahmaputra East NA NA
4 Teesta 3 Dam Lachung Chu Teesta/ Brahmaputra North NA NA
Manughat HFL crossed 130618 Tripura.png
Hydrograph for Manughat site, Tripura shows how fast the water levels rise in North East, underlining the need for early forecast, not just monitoring. 

WEST BENGAL (BRAHMAPUTRA BASIN) There are 6 Level Forecasting and 15 Flood monitoring Sites in Sub-Himalayan zone of Brahmaputra Basin in West Bengal. There is no Inflow Forecasting sites in Brahmaputra Basin in West Bengal.

List of Level Forecasting Sites in West Bengal (Brahmaputra Basin)

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District WL DL HFL, M HFL Date
1 DOMOHANI Teesta Teesta/ L Brahmaputra Jalpaiguri 85.65 85.95 89.3 04-10-1968
2 Mekhliganj Teesta Teesta/ L Brahmaputra Koch Bihar 65.45 65.95 66.45 13-07-1996
3 Jaldhaka NH 31 Jaldhaka Jaldhaka/ Lower Brahmaputra Jalpaiguri 80.0 80.9 81.33 28-08-1972
4 Mathabhanga Jaldhaka Jaldhaka/ Lower Brahmaputra Koch Bihar 47.7 48.2 49.85 07-09-2007
5 Ghugumari Torsa Torsa/ Lower Brahmaputra Koch Bihar 39.8 40.41 41.46 03-08-2000
6 Tufanganj Raidak-1 Torsa/ Lower Brahmaputra Koch Bihar 34.22 35.3 36.5 12-08-2017

 List of Flood Monitoring Sites in W Bengal (Brahmaputra Basin)

SN Site River Sub-Basin/ Basin District HFL, M HFL Date
1 Singlabazar Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Darjiling 311.0 05-09-1980
2 TEESTA BAZAR Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Darjiling 217.0 13-10-1973
3 GHISH Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Jalpaiguri 164.8 27-07-1972
4 CHEL Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Jalpaiguri 160.8  10-07-1971
5 CORONATION Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Darjiling 156.0 12-10-1973
6 SEVOKE Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Darjiling 147.3 12-10-1973
7 NEORA Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Jalpaiguri 116.7 24-07-1970
8 Gazoldoba Teesta Teesta/ B’putra Jalpaiguri 111.4 19-07-1990
9 DIANA Jaldhaka Jaldhaka/ Lower B’putra Jalpaiguri 196.55 19-07-1980
10 Nagrakata Jaldhaka Jaldhaka/ Lower B’putra Jalpaiguri 160.8 13-10-1978
11 MURTI Jaldhaka Jaldhaka/ Lower B’putra Jalpaiguri 141.45 28-07-2007
12 Barabisha Sankosh Sankosh/ Lower B’putra Jalpaiguri 50.1 13-10-1973
13 SANKOSH LRP Sankosh Sankosh/ Lower B’putra Koch Bihar 49.25 09-07-2017
14 Hasimara Torsa Torsa/ Lower B’putra Jalpaiguri 118.5  13-07-1996
15 Chepan Raidak-1 Torsa/ Lower B’putra Jalpaiguri 49.15 13-10-1973

Summary The tables here shows that there are 148 Level and Inflow Forecasting and flood monitoring sites in North East India comprising of 42 Level Forecasting, 100 Flood monitoring and 6 Inflow Forecast sites. The data also reveals that out of 148 sites, 32 sites comprising of 3 Level Forecast, 24 Level monitoring and 5 Inflow Forecast Sites are inactive.

NE FF sites CWC.png
Screenshot of CWC website, showing overview of flood monitoring sites in North East. 

About 75 per cent of these sites are in 3 states namely Assam (63 sites), Sikkim (26) and West Bengal (Brahmaputra) 22 sites. It is also seen that there is no site in Nagaland, only 1 site in Manipur state and 7 (each) in the states of Meghalaya and Mizoram. It is also shocking that out of 26 sites in Sikkim 21 (81 per cent) sites are inactive.

Summary Table of Level and Inflow Forecast, Monitoring Sites in North Eastern States

States Level Forecast

Sites

Flood Monitoring Sites Inflow Forecast

Sites

Total
Active Inactive Active Inactive Active Inactive
Arunachal Pradesh 2 0 8 1 0 0 11
Sikkim 0 3 4 14 1 4 26
Assam 29 0 31 2 0 1 63
Nagaland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Meghalaya 0 0 5 2 0 0 7
Manipur 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Tripura 2 0 10 0 0 0 12
Mizoram 0 0 2 5 0 0 7
W Bengal 6 0 15 0 0 0 21
NE India 39 3 76 24 1 5 148

CWC Sites in North East Bar Chart (14 Sept 2018).png

MAJOR GAPS Besides the large number of non functional sites and information gaps, there are other major gaps in CWC’s flood forecasting, some of them are listed below.

  • North East being highly flood prone, CWC needs to do much more to ensure that its flood forecasts reach the people who are in flood prone areas.
  • CWC has no flood forecasting sites in four full states: Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram. In the fifth, Sikkim, none of its flood forecasting sites are working. How can there be any justification for this?
  • In whole of flood prone Manipur, CWC has just one monitoring site. No level or inflow forecasting sites. This is clearly hugely inadequate.
  • Most of the Mizoram’s flood monitoring sites are not showing anything, this needs urgent attention. CWC also needs to add some key sites from Mizoram among its flood forecasting sites.
  • CWC needs to add more sites in Tripura, considering the large number of rivers in both states
  • In Arunachal Pradesh, CWC has no sites in a number of important rivers, including Dibang, Ranganadi, among others. In the huge and important Siang basin, it certainly needs many more sites than the two that CWC has.
  • For all the sites, the available information should be archived for at least five years and permanently for the HFL year.

In addition, there are many other issues with respect to the actual flood forecasting and monitoring by CWC, which are not dealt here.

A SANDRP analysis (ht.sandrp@gmail.com)

For first and third  part of the series, kindly visit;

Overview of CWC Flood Forecasting Sites: North India

Overview of CWC Flood Forecasting Sites; East India

END NOTES:

  1. The sites shown with RED colour are inactive and the sites which have no WL, DL, HFL data but have active Hydro Graph are listed with GREEN color.
  2. Abbreviations List:

Warning Level – WL

Danger Level – DL

Full Reservoir Level – FRL

Maximum Water Level – MWL

High Flood Level – HFL

Meters – M

[I] http://india-water.gov.in/ffs/

[II] https://sandrp.in/2018/08/03/overview-of-cwc-flood-forecasting-sites-north-india/

[III] Site with same name repeated on Brahmaputra river.

[IV] Dolasar river enters in Bangladesh from there.

[V] Kolodyne river flows to Myanmar.

[VI] The site Tlawng river, which is tributary of Barak.

One thought on “Overview of CWC’s Flood Monitoring & Forecasting in North East India

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