Monsoon · Rainfall

SW Monsoon 2020: District Wise Rainfall

India received 957.6 mm rainfall in Just concluded South West Monsoon 2020, during the scheduled 4 month monsoon from June 1 to Sept 30, 2020. This is 8.74% above normal monsoon rainfall of 880.6 as per India Meteorological Department (IMD). This is considered ABOVE NORMAL rainfall, since rainfall is in the range 4-10% above Normal rainfall. This sounds good at national level, but the situation on ground could be very different, if we see the rainfall across the country.

It is noteworthy as per even IMD, monsoon has not yet withdrawn from most parts of the country. But IMD closes its monsoon rainfall account at 0830 hours on Sept 30, so all rainfall after that hour has to be counted in “Post Monsoon” rainfall book, even though the rainfall is very much part of monsoon as per IMD.

On Oct 6, 2020, one of India’s national newspapers, INDIAN EXPRESS wrote an editorial on monsoon and noted: “The recent southwest monsoon season (June-September) has ended with an 8.7 per cent cumulative rainfall surplus for the country as a whole. This comes after a 10.4 per cent surplus in 2019, making it the first time since 1958 and 1959 that India has recorded two consecutive significantly above-normal monsoons. Moreover, rainfall has been above the long period average in as many as 13 out of the 15 months from July 2019. And it may even prolong, especially with global weather models forecasting the current La Niña conditions, favourable for rains in India, to continue through the winter months.” The rest of the editorial goes a bit off tangent discussing the merits of recent farm reforms. (

State Wise Rainfall Looking at the IMD rainfall map for statewise rainfall, we see that of the 37 states and Union Territories (UTs) of India (the figure was 36 till last year, but with the bifurcation of J&K into J&K and Ladakh, now we have the figure of 37), Sikkim is the only state having LARGE EXCESS rainfall, at 60% above normal rainfall. In addition, there are 9 States & UTs having Excess Rain (Rainfall 20-59% above normal), the names and % above normal rainfall can be seen in the map. They are spread to the East, West (Gujarat) and South, but none is from the North, North India has has deficit rainfall this year.

19 States/UTs had normal (-19% to +19%) rainfall, however, four of these had major deficits: Haryana (-14%), Jharkhand (-15%), Punjab (-16%) and Uttar Pradesh (-17%). Seven States/ UTs had deficit rainfall: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram. In addition, Ladakh had Large Deficit at 67%, with only 12.6 mm rainfall, against normal rainfall of just 37.7 mm.

Sub Division Wise Rainfall

IMD divides the country into 36 sub divisions and as we can see the Sub Division wise rainfall map, the picture is somewhat different. Here there are two sub divisions, incidentally both known arid areas, having LARGE SURPLUS rainfall with Saurashtra & Kutch getting high rainfall of 1146.2 mm, 126% above normal rainfall of 502 mm. Rayalseema in Andhra Pradesh, with even lower normal rainfall of 411.6 mm, received 84% above normal rains at 756 mm. Interestingly, the rainfall in Rayalseema was fairly distributed both spatially and temporally, which is not applicable to the same extent to Saurashtra and Kutch.

In addition, huge 13 sub divisions got Surplus rainfall, with actual rainfall being 20-59% above normal rains. These includes traditionally low rainfall areas like Marathwada, North Interior Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Puducherry and Western Rajasthan. 16 sub divisions had normal rainfall and 5 were in Red zone with deficient monsoon.

The Red Zone areas included Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Western Uttar Pradesh and NMMT (Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura). The largest of these areas, Western UP, had the largest deficit at 37% with rainfall of just 455.3 mm.

River Basin Wise Rainfall

As we can see from the map that IMD provides for river basin wise rainfall, Pennar basin, mostly in Rayalseema, had the highest surplus % at 100%. Lower Tungabhadra (74%), Luni-Saraswati-Bhadar (83%), Upper Godavari (76%) and Kynchiang basin in Meghalaya (70%) are the other river basins with Large Surplus Rainfall. There is one more basin in dark blue, but the map does not contain the details of that basin, confirming once again what we have been saying for some time that this map is unable to contain the information of rainfall for all the basins and this map must be accompanied with a table also giving basin wise rainfall figures. Incidentally, the Kynchiang basin had total rainfall of 11034.7 mm, or over 11 meter of rainfall!

There are a number of river basins in Red, signifying deficit rainfall, including Upper, Middle and Lower Yamuna basins, Chenab, Upper Sutlej, Upper Ganga, Ganga and Ramganga, possibly one more that the map does not list.

As usual, IMD says it has NO DATA for Jhelum and Upper Indus basin.


NORTH EAST: Assam Assam had 11% above normal rainfall at 1651.1 mm, compared to normal rainfall of 1486.2 mm. Of the 27 districts of Assam, 3 had Excess Surplus, 5 had surplus, 16 had normal, 2 (Nagaon and Morigaon) had Deficit and Darrang district had state’s lowest rainfall at 498 mm rainfall vs Normal rainfall of 1257.1 mm, or had Large Deficit (60%).

It is interesting to note that all the deficit and Large Deficit rainfall districts are in the central Assam, while the Surplus and Large Surplus districts are mostly in North West or Eastern corners. Chirang district had the highest rainfall at 4326.5 mm (89% above normal), while Dhemaji with 3652.3 mm had the highest surplus (101%).

Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh had 1943.7 mm, 13% above normal rainfall. Of the 16 districts in Arunachal Pradesh, only Dibang Valley District is in LARGE SURPLUS category with 4266 mm rainfall, Huge 151% above normal. Three other districts have Surplus rainfall, including East Siang district, having the highest rainfall of 4756.6 mm, 49% above normal. Five districts have deficit rainfall, with Tirap having the highest deficit of 56% and rainfall of 1025.4 mm. Papum Pare has the lowest rainfall at 495.6 mm, 38% below normal. Remaining 7 districts had normal rainfall.

Meghalaya Meghalaya had 3982.9 mm rainfall, 39% above normal rains. Of the Seven districts, three had large surplus rainfall, with East Garo Hills district having the highest surplus at 164% and rainfall of 4409 mm. East Khasi Hills had the highest rainfall at 7930.8 mm, possibly the highest rainfall of India. West Garo Hills had the lowest rainfall of the state at 1884.3 mm, which is less than 1% from normal rainfall. Two districts had excess and two had normal rainfall.

Manipur Manipur had one of the highest deficit rainfalls this monsoon, at -47%, with rainfall of 744.8 mm. Tamenglong had the highest rainfall at 2774.1 mm and Chandel had the lowest rainfall at less than 10% of that figure, 193.3 mm. And they were the only two districts with Large Deficit at 90 and 60% respectively! Five other districts had deficit rainfall and among the remaining two districts, Ukhrul was the only one with Normal rainfall of 986.7 mm and Imphal West was the only district with Excess Rain at 1169 mm.

Mizoram Another state in Red zone with (34%) Deficit rainfall at 1092.3 mm. Seven of the eight districts had Deficit rainfall with Serchhip district having the lowest rainfall at 697 mm and highest rainfall deficit at -54%. Lawngtlai district was the only one with normal zone rainfall (-5%) at 1629.5 mm.

Nagaland With 11 districts, Naglanad also had below normal rainfall at 845.1 mm with 26% deficit rainfall. Zunheboto district had the highest rainfall at 1319.9 mm (-5%). Mokokchung is the only other district in Normal rainfall zone with 1155.1 mm rainfall, 17% below normal. Those two were also the only ones to have rainfall above 1000 mm. Two districts were also in Excess category: Kohima (+20%) and Phek (+22%), their rainfall was: 852.1 and 975.7 mm respectively. Remaining seven districts were in Red Zone (Deficit Rains) with Peren having the lowest rainfall at 617.4 mm and Tuensang having the highest deficit at -53%.

Sikkim With rainfall of 2571.9 mm was in Deep Blue zone with excess rainfall at 60%. Of the four districts of Sikkim, North District had the highest rainfall at 2946.2 mm and highest surplus % at 97%. West district, however was in Red (Deficit) Zone with 1275 mm rainfall, 20% below normal.

Tripura With four districts, Tripura had 1292.9 mm rainfall, 11% below normal. There is not much difference between the highest rainfall district West Tripura with 1386.3 mm (+2%) rainfall and the lowest rainfall district Dhalai with 1207.2 mm (-14%), all four were in Normal zone.

North East Zone Summary LE: Large Excess; E: Excess; N: Normal; D: Deficit; LD: Large Deficit; ND: No Data.

StateLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal
Arunachal Pradesh13750016


Bihar The state with 38 districts had 1272.5 mm rainfall, 25% above normal. Three districts had deficit rainfall, with Bhabua (722.5 mm) having the highest deficit of 22%. 20 districts had Excess rain, with three districts having the highest surplus at 59%: Pachim Champaran (2024.9 mm), Supaul (1728.9 mm) and Darbhanga (1419.2 mm). Remaining 15 districts had normal rainfall. Arwal had the lowest rainfall at 642.2 mm (-14%) and Kishanganj had the highest rainfall at 2364.6 mm (+32%). It is noteworthy in the map that top half of Bihar had mostly Excess Rainfall, while generally the bottom half had normal or deficit rainfall. This possibly indicates these two halves belong to different meteorological sub divisions.

Uttar Pradesh India’s most populous state with 75 districts have been divided into two meteorological divisions: East with 42 districts and West with 33 districts. UP had 651.9 mm rainfall, 17% below normal.

EAST UP: In entire UP, there are two districts (Basti: 1619.5 mm – 94% and Chitrakoot 1229.3 mm – 61%) with large Excess Rainfall (above 60% surplus rainfall) and seven with Excess rainfall, all of these belong to East UP. East UP had 784.8 mm rainfall, 7% below normal. Two districts had large deficits: Kaushambi (243.6, -60%) and Kanpur Dehat (268 mm, -60%). Basti had the highest rainfall and Kaushambi the lowest. 19 districts had Normal Rainfall and 12 had Deficit rainfall.

WEST UP: This sub division had 455.3 mm rainfall, 37% below normal. Here 5 districts had Normal rainfall, 23 had deficit rainfall and 5 had Large Deficit. Gautam Budh Nagar had one of the lowest rainfall of the country at 68.3 mm, massive 87% below normal rainfall. Bijnor with 856.9 mm had the highest rainfall, 8% below normal.

W Bengal This state with 19 districts had 1463.5 mm, 4% above normal. Jalpaiguri had the highest rainfall at 4210.9 mm, 48% above normal. Hoogly with 880.4 mm (-16%) had the lowest rainfall. The district with the highest rainfall deficit is East Medinipur with rainfall deficit of 26%. The map shows clear rainfall pattern with North having surplus districts, south having deficit districts and in between all the normal rainfall districts.

Odisha The state with 30 districts had 1140.9 mm rainfall, 1% below normal. Two districts had Excess Rainfall, four had deficit rainfall and remaining 24 districts had normal rainfall. Malkangiri district had the highest rainfall at 1746.4 mm and highest Surplus % at 43%. Gajapathi district had the lowest rainfall at 763.2 mm.

Jharkhand The state with 24 districts had 899.2 mm rainfall, 15% below normal. Deoghar district with 572.3 mm rainfall had the lowest rainfall and deficit of 44%. Simdega had the highest rainfall at 1188.8 mm, 8% below normal. 15 districts had normal rainfall and 9 had deficit.

Chhattisgarh The state with 27 districts had 1234.3 mm rainfall, 8% above normal. Bijapur had the highest rainfall at 2271.1 mm, 72% above normal rains, only district having Large Excess rainfall. Three more districts had Excess Rainfall, 21 had normal rainfall and 2 districts had Deficit Rainfall. Surguja had the lowest rainfall at 822.8 mm, 33% below normal and highest deficit.

East Zone Summary

StateLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal
Uttar Pradesh2724357075
W Bengal031330019


Andhra Pradesh The state with 13 districts had 738.2 mm rainfall, 44% above normal. All four districts of Rayalseema division of this state had Large Excess rainfall, Rayalseema had 756 mm or 84% above normal rainfall. Cuddapah had the highest Surplus at 110 % and rainfall of 843.3 mm, highest in Rayalseema.

Six of the coastal districts had excess rainfall, two had normal and Srikakulm, the northern most coastal district, was the only one with deficit rainfall. Vishakhapatnam and Vizianagaram, both immediately south of Srikaklulm, had normal rainfall. Rayalseema made the southern end of AP, all in dark blue! W Godavari with 1090.3 mm (+38%) had the highest rainfall and Prakasham, the lowest rainfall district at 554.4 mm, had even higher surplus at 42%!

Telangana The state with 33 districts had 1095.4 mm, 46% above normal rainfall. 7 districts had Normal rains, 12 had Excess and remaining 14 had Large Excess Rainfall. Mulugu district with 2029.9 mm rainfall, 79% above normal had the highest rainfall. Nalgonda had the lowest rainfall at 641.6 mm, 21% above normal. Narayan Pet district had 1095.9 mm rainfall and highest surplus % at 152.
– However, state level rainfall figures are somewhat different: Telangana has received 1078.3 mm rainfall during the south-west monsoon this year as against the normal rainfall of 720.4mm. The highest deviation of excess rainfall (128 per cent) was recorded in Jogulamba Gadwal district, followed by Warangal Urban and Mahabubnagar which recorded an excess seasonal rainfall of 110 per cent. Of the total 589 mandals, 223 have received “large excess” rainfall of over 60 per cent. Meanwhile, Adilabad and Nirmal districts recorded a seasonal deficit of 10 per cent and 14 per cent, respectively. (, by Rahul V Pisharody, 02×20)

Tamil Nadu The state with 32 districts had 437.3 mm rainfall, 28% above normal. Six districts had large excess, 14 had excess, 11 districts had Normal and one district, Villupuram had deficit rainfall at -21%. Tirupur had the highest Excess % at 111% and 318.8 mm rainfall. Tuticorin had the lowest rainfall at 56.4 mm, 13% below normal. Nilgiri had the highest rainfall at 1373.4 mm, 57% above norrmal.

Karnataka The state with 30 districts spread of three regions (Coastal Karnataka, North Interior and South Interior Karnataka), had 1064.8 mm rainfall, 27% above normal. Five of the districts had Large Excess Rainfall, 18 Had excess Rainfall and 7 had Normal rainfall. Udupi district with 4874.8 mm had by far the highest rainfall, 30% above normal. Chamrajnagar district had the lowest rainfall at 454.9 mm, it was 38% above normal.

Coastal Karnataka with 3 districts had 3685 mm rainfall, 19% above normal. North Interior Karnataka with 11 districts had 739.3 mm rainfall, 49% above normal. South Interior Karnataka with 16 districts had 817.7 mm, 20% above normal.

Kerala The state with 14 districts (IMD reports Kerala rainfall as rainfall of 15 districts including Mahe, but Mahe is not a Kerala district, it is Pondicherry district) had 2228.2 mm in SW Monsoon 2020, 9% above normal. Nine districts had normal and five districts had excess rainfall. Kasargod district had the highest rainfall at 3605.6 mm, 21% above normal rains. Thiruvananthapuram had the lowest rainfall at 1153.7 mm among all Kerala districts, 33% above normal, highest above normal % among Kerala districts, along with Kozikod. Waynad had the highest deficit rainfall at 18% below normal rains, with rainfall of 2079.5 mm.

Pondicherry The state with four districts located at four different locations, not physically connected with each other, had 442.1 mm rainfall, 4% above normal. Mahe district, located in Kerala, had the highest rainfall at 3425.4 mm, 37% above normal. Puduchery district had the lowest rainfall at 295.2 mm, 25% below normal.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands These islands located in Bay of Bengal have three districts and had 1712.4 mm rainfall, 4% above normal. Two districts had normal and one (Nicobar, it had the lowest rainfall among the three districts) had excess rainfall.

Lakshdweep Islands This western islands district had 1345.1 mm rainfall, 33% above normal.

South India Summary:

StateLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal
Tamil Nadu6141110032


Goa The small western state with two districts had 4176 mm rainfall, 40% above normal rain. North Goa had slightly higher rainfall at 4266.2 mm compared to South Goa at 4096.4 mm. Both had Excess Rain.

Maharashtra The state with 36 districts spread over four meteorological divisions (Konkan-Goa, Madhya Maharashtra, Marathwada and Vidarbha) had 1165 mm rainfall, 16% above normal. Of the 7 Konkan districts, Suburban Mumbai was had Large Excess (67% above normal) rainfall at 3686.8 mm. Three districts each had Normal and Excess rainfall.

With ten districts, Madhya Maharashtra had 966.6 mm rainfall, 29% above normal. Here Ahmadnagar had Large Excess rainfall at 797.9 mm, 78% above normal. In addition, three districts had normal and six had Excess rainfall. Kolhapur had the highest rainfall at 2132.3 mm, 23% above normal. Solapur had the lowest rainfall at 601.2 mm, 25% above normal. Satara had the lowest above normal rainfall % at 6%.

With eight districts, Marathwada had 866.1 mm rainfall, 30% above normal. Only Aurangabad had Large Excess Rainfall at 955.6 mm, 64% above normal. Osmanabad had the lowest rainfall at 744.3 mm, 23% above normal.

With 11 districts, Vidarbha region had 851.9 mm rainfall, 10% below normal. Three of the districts had Deficit Rainfall and eleven districts had normal rainfall. Gadchiroli had the highest rainfall at 1155.9 mm, 8% below normal. Akola had the lowest rainfall in the state at 504.5 mm, 27% below normal rainfall and highest deficit in the state.

Madhya Pradesh Divided into two meteorological sub divisions (East and West MP), MP had 997.3 mm rainfall, 6% above normal. West MP, with 31 districts had 970.9 mm rainfall, 13 % above normal. Here 5 districts had Deficit, 11 had normal and 15 districts had Excess rainfall. Sehore had the highest rainfall at 1429.4 mm, 37% above normal. Bhind had the lowest rainfall at 432.6 mm, 32% below normal.

With 20 districts, East MP had 1031.6 mm rainfall, -2% below normal. Two districts each had Excess and Deficit rainfall, remaining 16 districts have Normal rainfall. Chhindwara had the highest rainfall at 1360.11 mm, 36% above normal. Chhattarpur district had low rainfall at 720 mm, 24 % below normal and Tikamgarh district had the lowest at 709.9 mm, 20% below normal, both from Bundelkhand region.

Gujarat The state with 33 districts had record 1091.7 mm rainfall, 58% above normal. IMD divides the state into to meteorological divisions: 1. Gujarat region 2. Saurashtra and Kutch.

With 21 districts, Gujarat region had 1035 mm rainfall, 12% above normal. Two districts had Large Excess (Patan in North Gujarat and Surat in South Gujarat, both had 60% above normal rainfall), four had Excess, 13 had normal and two districts (Dahod in East Gujarat had 28% below normal and Dangs in South Gujarat had 27% below normal rainfall) had deficit rainfall. Three districts had rainfall in the ragne 2000-2100 mm: Surat, Navsari and Valsad, these were the highest rainfall districts. Dangs in the same region had 1630.7 mm rainfall. Dahod had the lowest rainfall at 578.9 mm.

With 12 districts, Saurashtra and Kutch region had 1146.2 mm rainfall, 126% above normal, the highest surplus % among all the 36 meteorological subdivisions across India in SW Monsoon 2020. Devbhumi Dwarka district had the highest rainfall at 2132 mm, 325% above normal. All districts were in Large Excess category, except Bhavnagar, which is in Excess rainfall category with lowest rainfall at 722.9 mm, 27% above normal.

Rajasthan The state with 33 districts had 446.4 mm rainfall, 33% above normal. The state is divided into two meteorological sub divisions by IMD: West Rajasthan with 10 districts and East Rajasthan with 23 districts.

West Rajasthan had 331 mm rainfall, 25% above normal. Seven districts were in Excess rainfall category and three in Normal rainfall category. Jalor had the highest rainfall at 552.3 mm, 43% above normal. Ganganagar had the lowest rainfall at 169.5 mm, 16% below normal.

East Rajasthan had 591.7 mm rainfall, 2% below normal. Six districts had Excess rainfall, 11 had normal rainfall and six districts had deficit rainfall. Alwar district had the lowest rainfall at 391.1 mm, 29% below normal. Banswara had the highest rainfall at 1051.1 mm, 24% above normal. In additional Sirohi and Pratapgarh had above 1000 mm rainfall.

Dadra & Nagarhaveli This one district UT had 2379.6 mm rainfall, 10% above normal.

Daman & Diu This UT has two districts and had 1686.2 mm rainfall, 5% above normal. Daman had 1772.7 mm rainfall, 18% below normal, while Diu had 1530.5 mm, 147% above normal.

West India Summary

StateLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal
Madhya Pradesh0172770051
Dadar, NagarHaveli0010001
Diu, Daman1010002


Jammu & Kashmir With 20 districts, J&K had very low rainfall at 376.2 mm, 34% below normal. Six districts had normal rains, 11 had deficit rains and three districts (Bandipore 58 mm, 66% below normal; Shopian with 59 mm rain, 78% below normal and Kistwar 145 mm, 67% below normal) had Large Deficit rains. Riasi district had the highest rainfall at 1424.1 mm, 11% below normal. Kathua (1028.4, 25% below normal) is the only other district with above 1000 mm rainfall.

Ladakh This newly carved UT with two districts had just 12.6 mm rainfall, 67% below normal. Kargil had just 2.5 mm (93% below normal) and Leh-Ladakh had 15.8 mm rainfall (58% below normal).

Punjab The State with 20 districts had 391.7 mm rainfall, 16% below normal. Faridkot had Large Surplus rainfall at 525.2 mm, 75% above normal. Muktasar had Excess rainfall at 390.6 mm, 29% above normal. Among the rest, 9 districts each had Normal and Deficit rains. Gurdaspur had the highest rainfall at 838.6 mm, Normal rain being 836.9 mm. Mansa had the lowest rainfall at 136.4 mm, 55% below normal.

Haryana The state with 21 districts had 376.1 mm rainfall, 14 % below normal. Three districts had Excess Rainfall, Eight districts had Normal rainfall, Nine districts had deficit rainfall and one district (Panchkula, 322.2 mm, 65% below normal) had Large Deficit Rainfall. Karnal had the highest rainfall at 705.4 mm, 29% above normal. Bhiwani had the lowest rainfall at 189.2 mm, 43% below normal.

Chandigarh This City UT had 791.1 mm rainfall, 7% below normal.

Himachal Pradesh This Himalayan state with 12 districts had 565.5 mm rainfall, 26% below normal. Lahul Spiti had the lowest rainfall at 98.3 mm, 75% below normal, the only district in Large Deficit category. Four other districts had Normal and Seven had deficit rainfall. Kangra had the highest rainfall at 1223.9 mm, 23% below normal.

Uttarakhand The state with 13 districts had 943.2 mm, 20% below normal. Bageshwar was the only district in Large Excess category, with highest rainfall, 1992.4 mm, massive 136% above normal. Four districts had normal and eight had deficit rainfall. Dehradun, Pithoragarh and Udham Singh Nagar too had above 1000 mm rainfall. Almora had the lowest rainfall at 596.6 mm, 29% below normal.

Delhi The National Capital Territory State with nine districts had 467.7 mm rainfall, 20% below normal. Central Delhi with 250.2 mm rainfall, 63% below normal, was the only district in Large Deficit Category & had the lowest rainfall. Three other districts had Normal rains and Five had Deficit rainfall. North Delhi had the highest rainfall at 619 mm, 5% above normal.

North Zone Summary

StateLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal


2020 Monsoon:

ZoneLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal
North East81533273086
South + Islands296038300130

Let us compare with the 2019 All India Summary:

ZoneLE districtsE DistrictsN districtsD DistrictsLD DistrictsND DistrictsTotal
NE, Islands3745305191

Among many other differences, a welcome difference is that in 2020, there are ZERO “No Data” districts, compared to 2019 when IMD categorised no less than 11 districts as “No Data” districts. A welcome sign.


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