Rainfall

State wise rainfall Pre Monsoon 2020 & Post monsoon 2019

India Meteorological Department (IMD) divides a water year (June 1 to May 31) into four seasons: Monsoon: (June 1 to Sept 30), Post monsoon (Oct 1 to Dec 31), Winter (Jan 1 to Feb 28/9) and Pre Monsoon (March 1 to May 31). For rainfall during all these seasons, IMD’s hydro-meteorological website[i] provides a lot of data on daily basis, including daily district wise rainfall, state-wise, sub division wise and river wise daily rainfall maps among many other weekly, monthly and seasonal products. However, one problem with it is that none of this information is achieved. So if you missed seeing or downloading available data on any date, there is no way to look at it even next day. This is even true of the seasonal rainfall maps, unfortunately.

Most observers look at the monsoon rainfall data, which is clearly the most important season, without doubt. However, the rainfall in other seasons is also very important from a number of perspectives.

Here we are giving a detailed account of the pre-monsoon season rainfall that India received in the season just ended on May 31, 2020, including state wise, sub division wise, river wise and also district wise figures. Along with it, we also provide the figures of post monsoon figures for the just concluded water year. For the winter season (Jan-Feb 2020) we have only the figures for Jan 2020 since we missed downloading the Feb 2020 figures. We had already provided the monsoon 2019 figures through two blogs in October 2019[ii].

ALL INDIA RAINFALL: State-wise Rainfall India received 158.5 mm rainfall during pre monsoon 2020 season, which was 20% above the normal rainfall figure of 131.7 mm. 13 states got Large Excess (over 60% above LPA rains), 2 states received Excess (20-59% above LPA), 10 states got Normal (+/- 19% of LPA), 7 states got deficit rains (20-59% below LPA), 2 states got Large Deficit (over 60% below LPA) and 2 states got no rains. Here LPA is Long period average, taken as average of the rainfall during 1961-2010. Meghalaya received the highest rainfall at 1291.7 mm. Gujarat had the lowest rainfall at 2.6 mm and Goa had the highest deficit (83%). Madhya Pradesh had the highest surplus at 194%.

IMD Pre monsoon 2020 State wise rainfall

During Post monsoon 2019 season (Oct-Dec), India received 160 mm rainfall, 29% above normal (123.8 mm). Lakshadweep islands got the highest rainfall among states at 874.3 mm, 172% above normal. Goa had the highest surplus at 180%. Andaman and Nicobar had the highest deficit at 57%. Haryana had the lowest rainfall at 27.9 mm.

Sub-Division wise rainfall Among IMD’s 36 sub divisions, 13 received Large Excess, 4 received Excess, 11 received Normal, 6 received Deficit, and 2 received Large Deficit rainfall. Assam and Meghalaya received the highest divisional rainfall at 663.5 mm. East Madhya Pradesh had the highest excess at 250%. Saurashtra and Kutch received the lowest rainfall at just 1.1 mm and highest deficit at 73%. North East India has the highest rainfall, followed by East India.

During Post monsoon 2019, W Rajasthan had the highest surplus at 294% among the 36 sub-divisions of IMD.

River-wise rainfall IMD provides a map of river wise rainfall too, see map below. Here Middle Yamuna basin has the highest surplus at 279%, rainfall is 85.9 mm. Kynchiang basin in Meghalaya received the highest rainfall at 2240.1 mm, 46% above normal rainfall of 1537.3 mm. Strangely, IMD has no data for Jhelum and Upper Indus basins. Ponnaiyar-Palar basin in South India got the highest deficit at 35%. Sabarmati basin received the lowest rainfall at 12.4 mm, but that was in Large Excess category with 76% above normal rainfall!

During the post monsoon 2019 season, Kosi basin (N Bihar) had the highest deficit at 76% and lowest rainfall at 21.3 mm.  Kynchiang basin in Meghalaya again had the highest rainfall at 621.7 mm. For Jhelum and Upper Indus, IMD again had no data. Sabarmati river again had the highest surplus at 230%.

STATE WISE DISTRICT WISE RAINFALL: North Zone: Jammu and Kashmir During pre-monsoon 2020 season, the state had 330.2 mm rainfall, 2% below normal. For 5 of the 22 districts of J&K, IMD had NO DATA! These included Kargil, Kishtwar, Samba, Punch and Shopian. Anantnag and Baramulla had deficient rain, Jammu had Excess rain. Riasi and Udhampur districts had Large Excess rains. Leh-Ladakh with 5.6 mm rain, had Large Deficit at 80%. Rest of 11 districts had Normal rainfall. Ramban at 521.3 mm had the highest rainfall. Udhampur, Doda and Riasi also had rainfall above 400 mm.

During Post 2019 monsoon, J&K had 253.3 mm rainfall, 88% above normal. IMD has not data of Ganderwal and Kistwar districts. In this season, Leh-Ladakh district had NO RAIN. Punch dist had large deficit at 63% with 38.5 mm rain. Doda, Jammu, Kathua and Rajouri districts had Excess rainfall and rest of the 14 districts had Large Excess rain. Badgam had the highest surplus at 194%. Ramban had the highest rainfall at 437.3 mm. Kargil with 26.8 mm had the lowest rainfall. 

Himachal Pradesh In pre monsoon 2020 season, HP got 271.1 mm rainfall, 11% above normal. Out of 12 districts of HP, two tribal districts (Kinnaur and Lahul-Spiti) got deficit rainfall. Chmba, Kullu and Shimla got Excess rainfall and rest of the seven districts got Large Excess rainfall. Sirmaur had the highest surplus at 160%. Lahul Spiti had the highest deficit at 53%. Chamba had the highest rainfall at 415.9 mm and Kinnaur had the lowest rainfall at 154.2 mm.

During post 2019 monsoon season, HP had 33% surplus rainfall at 121.4 mm. Lahul Spiti had deficit, Solan had normal rainfall. 4 districts had Excess and six had large excess rainfall.

Uttarakhand During Pre Monsoon 2020 season, Uttarakhand had 238.4 mm rainfall, 54% above normal. One of the 13 districts had normal, four had Excess and rest eight had Large Excess rainfall. Uttarkashi had the highest rainfall at 299.3 mm and Champawat had the lowest at 144.5 mm. Haridwar had the highest surplus at 232%.

During post monsoon 2019 season Uttarakhand had 114.6 mm rainfall, 89% above normal. Two districts each had normal and excess rainfall and rest 9 had Large Excess rains. Nainital at 165.8 mm had the highest rainfall and Haridwar had the lowest at 52.4 mm.

Punjab During pre monsoon 2020 season, Punjab received 131.6 mm rainfall, 139% above normal. 3 districts had Excess and 17 districts had Large excess rainfall. Gurdaspur had the highest rainfall at 244.1 mm. Muktasar had the lowest rainfall at 51.5 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Punjab received 62.4 mm, 137% above normal rainfall. One district had normal, three had excess and rest 16 had large excess rains. Gurdaspur again had the highest rainfall at 140.7 mm. Muktsar again had the lowest rainfall at 15.5 mm. Kapurthala had the highest surplus at 435%.

Haryana During pre monsoon 2020 season, Haryana received 118.5 mm rains, 205% above normal. All 21 districts had large surplus, save one, which had surplus rains. Sonipat had the highest rainfall at 222.8 mm. Palwal had the highest surplus at 569%. Gurgaon had the lowest rainfall at 64.1 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Haryana received 27.9 mm rains, 39% above normal. 3 districts had deficit, 5 districts had normal, 5 districts had excess and 8 districts had large excess rains. Mewat had the lowest rainfall at 10.8 mm and Sonipat again had the highest rainfall at 47.5 mm.

Chandigarh During pre monsoon 2020 season, Chandigarh received 170.1 mm or 109% above normal rainfall. During post monsoon 2019 the rainfall was 65.5 mm, 18% above normal.

Delhi During pre monsoon 2020 season, Delhi had 102.1 mm rains, double the normal rain. Strangely for three of the nine districts, IMD had no data: Central Delhi, NW Delhi and W Delhi. 2 districts had excess and four had LE rainfall. During post monsoon 2019 season, National capital received 41.6 mm rains, 83% above normal. One district had deficit, one had normal two had excess and five had LE rains.

WEST INDIA: Rajasthan During pre monsoon 2020 season, Rajasthan had 44.9 mm rain, 114% above normal rains. West Rajasthan had 44.7 mm, 99% above normal rains. East Rajasthan had 45.2 mm or 138% above normal rains.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Rajasthan had 42.2 mm or 136% above normal rains. West Rajasthan had 45.7 or 294% above normal rainfall, East Rajasthan had 37.8 mm, 47% above normal rain.

Madhya Pradesh During pre monsoon 2020 season, Madhya Pradesh received 51.4 mm or 194% above normal rain. West MP had 27.4 mm, 113% above normal. East MP had 82.7, 250% above normal.

During Post monsoon 2019 season, MP received 64.8 mm rain, 21% above normal. West MP had 68.5 mm, 35% above normal, whereas East MP had 59.9 mm, 4% above normal.

Gujarat During pre monsoon 2020 season, Gujarat received just 2.6 mm rain, 49% below normal. Saurashtra & Kutch received just 1.1 mm rainfall, 73% below normal.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Gujarat received 72.8 mm rain, which is 156% above normal. Saurashtra and Kutch received 63.9 mm or 132% above normal rainfall.

Dadar & Nagarhaveli During pre monsoon 2020 season, this union territory received NO RAIN. However, during post monsoon 2019 season, it received 128.2 mm or 134% above normal rains.

Daman & Diu During pre monsoon 2020 season, Daman & Diu received NO RAIN. During the earlier post monsoon 2019 season, it got 104.4 mm or 109% above normal rains.

Maharashtra During pre monsoon 2020 season, Maharashtra had 33.5 mm or 14% above normal rains. During this season Madhya Maharashtra had 32.6 mm rainfall, close to normal rains of 32.5 mm. Marathwada had 32.7 mm or 19% above normal rains; Vidarbha had 41.8 mm or 53% above normal rains.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Maharashtra got 184.9 mm or 88% above normal rains. Madhya Maharashtra had 228.6 mm rainfall or 122% above normal; Marathwada had huge 257.3 mm rainfall, 157% above normal; Vidarbha had 66.7 mm rains, 18% below normal.

Goa During pre monsoon 2020 season, Goa had just 15.4 mm rains, 84% below normal.

During post monsoon 2019, the rainfall here was 588.5 mm, 180% above normal.

SOUTH INDIA: Karnataka During pre monsoon 2020 season, Karnataka had 149.6 mm or 28% above normal rains. Coastal Karnataka had 171.9 mm or 10% below normal rains. North Interior Karnataka had 111.8 mm or 40% above normal rains. South Interior Karnataka had 177.5 mm or 26% above normal rains.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Karnataka had 308.4 mm or 70% above normal rainfall. Coastal Karnataka had 582.3 mm or 127% above normal rains. N I Karnataka had 245.1 mm or 77% above normal rainfall. S I Karnataka received 307.7 mm or 51% above normal rain.

Tamil Nadu During pre monsoon 2020 season, Tamil Nadu received 77.6 mm or 39% below normal rains.

However, during post monsoon 2019 season, Tamil Nadu received 452 mm or 1% above normal rainfall.

Kerala During pre monsoon 2020 season, Kerala got 386.5 mm or 7% above normal rains.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Kerala received 625 mm or 27% above normal rains.

Puducherry During pre monsoon 2020 season, Puducherry had 56.5 mm or 44% below normal rains. During post monsoon 2019 months, Puducherry received 780 mm or 13% below normal rainfall.

Andhra Pradesh During pre monsoon 2020 months, AP received 75.2 mm or 18% below normal rainfall. Rayalseema got 65.3 mm or 20% below normal rain.

During post monsoon 2019, AP got 269 mm rains, 7% below normal. In this period Rayalseema received 225.4 mm or 1% above normal rains.

Telangana During pre monsoon 2020 months, Telangana got 62.2 mm or 6% below normal rainfall.

During post monsoon 2019 months, it got 172.6 mm or 40% above normal rains.

EAST INDIA Chhattisgarh During pre monsoon 2020 months, Chhattisgarh in East India received 119.5 mm or 192% above normal rains. It ranged from 26.5 mm in Naryanpur district to 245.4 mm in Surajpur district.

During post monsoon 2019 season, it received 106.2 mm or 39% above normal rains. It ranged from 28.9 mm in Kabirdham to 236.4 mm in Narayanpur district.

Uttar Pradesh During Pre monsoon 2020 season, Uttar Pradesh received 94 mm rains, 199% above normal rains. East UP got 97.6 mm, which was 201% above normal. West UP got 88.5 mm or 196% above normal rains.

During post monsoon 2019 months, UP received 48.6 mm rainfall, 17% above normal. East UP received 46.4 mm or 3% below normal rains. West UP got 51.9 mm, or 59% above normal rainfall.

Bihar During pre monsoon 2020 months, Bihar had 182.5 mm, 123% above normal rains. Range was from 55.6 mm in Arwal district to 417.2 mm in Purnia.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Bihar received 42.2 mm, 42% below normal rains, ranging from 7.7 mm in Arariya to 121.4 mm in Banka.

Jharkhand During pre monsoon 2020 season, Jharkhand received 218.6 mm rains, which was 162% above normal. The rainfall ranged from 79.8 mm in Garhwa district to 347.7 mm in Simdega district.

During the post monsoon 2019 months, it got 141.3 mm rains, 56% above normal. Rainfall range was from 32.2 mm in Sahibganj to 260 mm in E Singhbhum district.

Odisha During pre monsoon 2020 months, Odisha received 265.4 mm rains, 107% above normal. The rainfall range was from 134.5 mm in Balangir district to 448.8 mm in Mayurbhanj district.

During post monsoon 2019 months, it received 188.6 mm or 44% above normal rainfall. The rainfall ranged from 48.5 mm in Balangir district again, to 371.4 mm in Puri district.

W Bengal During pre monsoon 2020 season, W Bengal received 382.2 mm or 62% above normal rains. Mursidabad had the lowest rainfall at 244 mm, while Jalpaiguri with 581.7 mm had the highest rainfall.

During post monsoon 2019 months, W Bengal received 215.5 mm or 35% above normal rains. The rainfall ranged from 65.2 mm in Howrah to massive 570.4 mm in East Mednipur.

NORTHEAST INDIA Sikkim Sikkim received during pre monsoon 2020 season 665.4 mm or 9% above normal rainfall. The range was huge from 210.6 mm in West Sikkim to 873.7 mm in North Sikkim district.

During post monsoon 2019 months, it got 110 mm rain, which was 49% below normal. West Sikkim again had the lowest rainfall at 69.6 mm and South Sikkim district had the highest at 128.7 mm.

Arunachal Pradesh During pre monsoon 2020 season Arunachal Pradesh got 599 mm, 22% below normal rains. IMD had no data for three districts. Besides them, East Kameng had the lowest rainfall at 230.7 mm, and Lower Dibang Valley district had the highest rainfall at 997.5 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 months, Arunachal got 145.4 mm or 46% below normal rain. East Kameng again had the lowest rainfall at 62.8 mm, while Papum-Pare district had the highest rainfall at 272.7 mm.

Assam During pre monsoon 2020 season, Assam received 489.9 mm or 10% below normal rain. IMD had no data for Udalguri district. Besides that, rainfall ranged from low of 172.8 mm in Darrang district to 1117.5 mm in Goalpara district.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Assam had 161.1 mm rains, close to normal rainfall of 161.5 mm. It ranged from 51.7 mm in Baksa to 398.4 mm in Cachar district.

Meghalaya During pre monsoon 2020 season, Meghalaya received 1291.4 mm or 71% above normal rainfall. Among the seven districts of the state, South Garo Hills had low of 679.8 mm, while East Khasi Hills had the High of 1867.5 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 months, Meghalaya received 365.6 mm or 11% above normal rains. West Garo Hills had the lowest rainfall of 180.4 mm, while East Khasi Hills again had the highest at 537.3 mm.

Manipur During pre monsoon 2020 months, Manipur had 216.2 mm or 40% below normal rains. IMD does not have rain data for Tamenglong district. Out of the rest 8 districts, Chandel dist had the lowest rainfall at 64.7 mm and Bishnupur had the highest at 304.4 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 months, Manipur had 151.2 mm, 33% below normal rains. Chandel dist again had the lowest rainfall at 65.5 mm, while Ukhrul had the highest rainfall at 254 mm.

Mizoram During pre monsoon 2020 months, Mizoram had 222.8 mm, or 61% below normal rainfall. Among the eight districts, Kolasib with 53.1 mm had the lowest rainfall, while capital Aizwal district had the highest rainfall of 363.2 mm.

During the post monsoon 2019 season, Mizoram had 166.6 mm or 37% below normal rains. Serchhip district with 48.9 mm rains had the lowest rainfall while Mamit district with 367.2 mm rainfall had the highest.

Nagaland During pre monsoon 2020 months, Nagaland received 270.5 mm or 28% below normal rains. IMD had no data for the Longleng district. Among the rest of the ten districts, Peren district had the lowest rainfall of 77.9 mm, while Mokokchung district had 348.7 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 season, Nagaland received 213.5 mm or 33% above normal rains. Out of the 11 districts, Phek had the lowest rainfall at 114.1 mm and Peren had the highest at 288.6 mm.

Tripura During pre monsoon 2020 season, Tripura got 562.7 mm or 17% below normal rains. Among the 4 districts, West Triura had the lowest rainfall at 449.6 mm while Dhalai had the highest at 654.3 mm.

During post monsoon 2019 months, Tripura had 239.7 mm or 8% above normal rains. West Tripura again had the lowest rainfall at 170.8 mm, while North Tripura had the highest at 350.9 mm.

ISLANDS Andaman and Nicobar During pre monsoon 2020 season, A & N islands had 266.1 mm or 43% below normal rainfall. During post monsoon 2019 months, they had 293 mm or 57% below normal rains.

Lakshadweep During the pre monsoon 2020 season, Lakshadweep Islands had 237.3 mm or  17% above normal rains. During post monsoon 2019 months, they had 874.3 mm or 172% above normal rains.

In conclusion While the 4-month SW monsoon season remains the most important season from rainfall point of view, the rest of the eight month seasons also bring considerable rainfall and has remarkable variations and significance. This blog is and attempt to understand these patterns, and how they are changing and varying. We hope to continue to do it for every season in future.

SANDRP (ht.sandrp@gmail.com)

END NOTES:

[i] http://hydro.imd.gov.in/hydrometweb/(S(f1mwiyvonpayer45tzdgzk3u))/landing.aspx

[ii] https://sandrp.in/2019/10/01/surplus-2019-monsoon-in-india-proves-imd-and-skymet-wrong/, https://sandrp.in/2019/10/04/monsoon-2019-state-wise-rainfall/

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