Rainfall

Post Monsoon 2021: District wise Rainfall in India

According to India Meteorological Department (IMD), during the just concluded Post Monsoon Rainfall for 2021, that included rainfall during Oct-Dec months, India received 177.7 mm rainfall, 43.54% above normal rainfall of 123.8 mm. In the same period last year, India received 124.6 mm rainfall, 0.64% above the normal rainfall. As per IMD[i] definition, the rainfall was in surplus category.

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Monsoon · Rainfall

High Rainfall days in India’s districts in SW Monsoon 2021

An analysis of the daily district wise rainfall data from India Meteorological Department (IMD) for India’s South West Monsoon 2021 shows that there were 2079 instances when a district rainfall of a day was above 50 mm. Such high rainfall instances included 1712 instances when rainfall was 50-100 mm, 288 instances when it was 100-150 mm, 53 times it was 150-200 mm and 26 times above 200 mm. Out of 694 districts of India, 527 districts or, about 76% of the districts experienced such high rainfall days during SW monsoon 2021.

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Monsoon · Rainfall

Heavy Rainfall in India in Oct-Nov 2021

India has seen rather heavy rainfall in October and November 2021, with October All India Rainfall being 33% above normal and November rainfall being record breaking 86% above normal. The combined Oct + Nov Rainfall was 48% above normal, and by Dec 7, as we write this, it is already 53% above normal for the period from Oct 1 to Dec 7, 2021.

While lingering South West Monsoon brought large part of the excess rainfall in first half of October, the unusually active North East Monsoon with continuous supply of moisture from Bay of Bengal has been the main reason for the high rainfall since late October. The onset of La Nina has also contributed to this and with La Nina forecast to remain in place till March 2022, we are in for continued wet spell in South India, it seems. IMD has already forecast above normal rainfall in South Karnataka during Dec 2021 to Feb 2022.

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Dam Disaster

Andhra Pradesh: Dam Induced Flood Disaster in November 2021

Feature image:- Damaged Annamayya dam on Cheyyeru river in Kadapa (Source:NaveenReddy@navin_ankampali)

After Pulichintala dam gate disaster[i] of August 05, 2021, the state of Andhra Pradesh has witnessed another dam induced flood disaster in 2021. This started with, part of Annamayya dam in Pennar (also called Penna) river basin[ii] getting washed away resulting in widespread destruction in downstream areas on November 19.

Around same time, there were more incidents of damages to dams and dam induced flooding in Kadapa, Chittoor, Anantapur districts of Rayalaseema and adjoining Nellore district. Firstly, the collapse of Pincha project ring bund contributed to Annamayya flood disaster. Then, one of metal bund of Mylavaram project was washed away.

Fourthly, the sudden releases from Veligallu and Buggavanka dams in Kadapa and Kalyani dam in Tirupati resulted in flash flood destruction in downstream areas. Apart from this, the leakages in Rayalacheruvu tank bund in Chittoor district could have turned into a big disaster.

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Cloud Burst

Monsoon 2021: Cloud bursts in Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh

(Feature image:- Local people, army personnel carrying rescue work at Honzar, Kishtwar after davastating cloud burst on July 28. Image source: Social Media)

The increasing incidents of cloud bursts in Himalayan states have been proving significant disaster for lives and livelihoods of native people, rivers and environment of the states. Since 2018, SANDRP has been compiling reports on these extreme weather events to analysis the frequencies and impacts. After documenting cloud bursts reports in pre[i] and during[ii] monsoon season in Uttarakhand and in Himachal Pradesh[iii], this is fourth and last report of this series in 2021, this one from Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Ladakh Union Territories (UT). We have not come across any such incidents reported in North Eastern states this year.  

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Monsoon

Unprecedented October 2021 Rainfall in Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand has seen unusual rainfall episode in the month of October 2021. The extreme rains during October 17 to 19 across the state and particularly at several places in districts under Kumaon division have been termed as highest rainfall in the recorded history as per Meteorological Circle (MC), Dehradun. This account is an attempt to document the historical rainfall events caused by combination of low pressure and western disturbance (WD) weather phenomena.

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Disasters · Floods

Kerala and Uttarakhand floods in Oct 2021: Did the forewarnings help?

The October 2021 flood disasters in two ends of India, in Kerala and Uttarakhand have a lot common. Both happened after the end of normal dates of South West Monsoon 2021. In both cases it is repeat of earlier such disasters in respective states. In both cases, there were reports by expert reports warning about the disasters. In both cases the rainfall events were broadly along the lines warned by the climate scientists, but in both cases the state was ill prepared to cope with it. In both cases, inappropriate human interventions have worsened the disasters in major ways. And in both cases disaster management seems to be absent from ground. In both cases, more precise forecasts about the rainfall quantum and location would have helped. (Feature Image above is from The Hindustan Times, Oct 23, 2021)

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Cloud Burst

Himachal Pradesh: Cloud Bursts in Monsoon 2021

(Feature image:- Local people trying to crossing the overflowing Jahlma drain with a rope to take an injured person to the hospital. Source: Amar Ujala, July 30, 2021.)

The Himalayan states have been facing reoccurring cloud burst disasters for the past several years. The state of Uttarakhand witnessed 50 such events, 24 pre monsoon[i] and 26 during south west monsoon[ii] season of 2021. This account highlights the situation of the emerging climatic threat in Himachal Pradesh in pre monsoon and monsoon months in 2021.

Here it may be noted that during SW Monsoon months of June to Sept 2021, Himachal Pradesh had 10% below normal rainfall, with 8 of the twelve districts of the state experiencing below normal rainfall. Lahaul and Spiti had the highest deficit at -65%. Among the four districts that had above normal rains, Kullu had the highest surplus at +40%. Even during the pre-monsoon months (March to May 2021), HP had 10% below normal rains.

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Cloud Burst

Uttarakhand: Cloud Bursts in SW Monsoon 2021

SANDRP has been compiling the extreme rainfall events termed as cloud bursts occurring during monsoon season in Himalayan states. This account brings out the status of such incidents in the state of Uttarakhand. We have already published details of at least 24 ‘cloud burst’[i] incidents in pre monsoon month of May 2021 in the state. In following parts, we would cover the other states in Western Himalaya.

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Monsoon · Rainfall

High Rainfall days in India’s districts in Sept 2021

An analysis of the daily district wise rainfall data from India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the month of September 2021, the last month of India’s South West Monsoon 2021 shows that there were 489 instances when district rainfall of a day was above 50 mm. The normal monthly rainfall of India for Sept is 170.2 mm and actual rainfall was a huge 34.96% above normal at 229.7 mm[i], the actual average daily rainfall in this month was about 7.66 mm. Such high rainfall instances included 374 instances when rainfall was 50-100 mm, 84 instances when it was 100-150 mm, 20 times it was 150-200 mm and eleven times above 200 mm.

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