CWC - Central Water Commission · Dams

India’s Rivers Breaching High Flood Levels in SW Monsoon 2022

(Feature Image: Hydrograph of River Godavari in extreme flood situation at Kaleswaram level forecast station in Bhupalpally district, Telangana on July 15, 2022. Source: CWC)

Highest Flood Level (HFL) breach incidents are important indicator of flood cycle and could also help in understanding the changing rainfall pattern. Though, with 925 mm rainfall[i], the south west monsoon season 2022 falls in normal category, its distribution both temporally and spatially has seen huge variations. This is also reflected by at least 57 HFL breach incidents in 8 river basin across the country during the SW Monsoon months of July-Sept 2022.

For past four years, SANDRP has been tracking the HFL breach incidents during pre-monsoon and monsoon months. The analysis of such HFL breaches in 2018[ii], 2019[iii] and 2020[iv], May-Sept 2021[v], Oct.-Nov 2021[vi] can be seen on our website. The pre-monsoon months of May and June 2022[vii] have also seen 5 HFL breach incidents. This report tracks the other HFL breach incidents taking place between July and September months.

1. GANGA BASIN

Out of 21 HFL breach incidents in Ganga basin, 7 have taken place in Madhya Pradesh, 6 each in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and 2 in Uttarakhand. Remarkably, about 15 HFL breach incidents have occurred in lower parts of Yamuna (4) and its tributaries including Chambal rivers (9), Betwa (1), Ken (1).

Few hydrographs of rivers breaching HFL in Ganga basin in MP state.

Interestingly, the Amlav river a tributary of Yamuna in Dehradun has breached 2021 HFL 512.4 m at least half a dozen time in August 2022 after heavy rainfalls. The river even flowed over 2021 HFL for more than 200 hours in last week of August and continues to be above 2021 HFL since 04:00 hour on 29.09.2022 upto 15:00 hours on 06.10.2022 following a cloud burst incident in its catchment.

Hydrograph tracking Amlav river in Yamuna basin, Uttarakhand flowing in extreme flood situation in Aug, Sept and Oct. 2022.

The incident has again revealed poor HFL record keeping by CWC as the agency had maintained 512 m as its HFL till 20.08.2022 which was even lower than HFL attained in 2021. Instead of correcting and letting flood level come below old HFL, CWC abruptly updated its HFL to 213. 25 dated 01.10.2022.

Few hydrographs on rivers breaching HFL in Ganga basin in Uttar Pradesh state during SW monsoon 2022.

Out of total 21 HFL breach in Ganga basin 16 have taken place at Level Monitoring (LM) sites and just 5 at Level Forecast (LF) sites. Most of the sites have attained HFL in past couple of years except Chambal river at Dholpur, Manderial and Pali where HFL is breached after 26 years.

Table 1: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Ganga Basin

SNSiteRiver/
Basin
District/ StateWL/
DL,
M
Old HFL,
M
DateNew HFL,
M
Time/
Date
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1KalsiAmlav/ YamunaDehradun/ Uttarakhand 512.411.07.2021513.2513:00 hr 01.10.20220.85 m~172 hrs
       512.8910:00 hr 23.08.20220.49 m~201 hrs
       512.8507:00 hr 23.08.2022  
       512.804:00 hr 20.08.2022  
2BateshwarYamunaAgra/ Uttar Pradesh 131.5630.09.2021131.9204:00 hr 02.10.20220.36 m~38 hrs
3BasodaBetwa/ YamunaVidisha/ MP 404.2227.07.1986405.612:00 hr 23.08.20221.38 m~23 hrs
4BangpuraChapi/ ChambalRajgarh/ MP 368.66816.09.2019371.0108:00 hr 23.08.20222.342 m~14 hrs
5AsthaParwati/ ChambalSehore/ MP 480.19522.08.2020481.0821:00 hr 10.08.20220.88 m~12 hrs
6DholpurChambal/ YamunaDholpur/ Rajasthan129.79/ 130.79145.5423.08.1996146.5719:00 hr 25.08.20221.03 m~25 hrs
7ManderialChambal/ YamunaKaruali/ Rajasthan164/ 165169.9623.08.1996170.0506:00 hr 25.08.20220.09 m~07 hrs
8PaliChambal/ YamunaSawai Madhopur/ Rajasthan197/ 198203.523.08.1996204.100:00 hr 25.08.20220.6 m~14 hrs
9UdiChambal/ YamunaEtawah/ Uttar Pradesh 128.5318.09.2019129.9112:00 hr 26.08.20221.38 m~38 hrs
10BagchiniKunwari/ YamunaMorena/ MP 161.1404.08.2021161.7122:00 hrs 23.09.20220.57 m~09 hrs
11Orai 2 MangrayanNoon/ YamunaJalaun/ Uttar Pradesh 134.0430.07.2021135.4813:00 hr 22.09.20221.44 m~135 hrs
       134.54 m04:00 hr 16.09.20220.5 m~21 hrs
12BulakipuraSengar/ YamunaAuraiya/ Uttar Pradesh 136.3319.09.2019137.0204:00 hr 25.09.20220.69 m~125 hrs
13KaithiChandrawal/ KenHamirpur/ Uttar Pradesh 101.4115.09.2019101.9914:00 hr 27.08.20220.58 m~56 hrs
14BorkhandiChandralohi/ ChambalKota/ Rajasthan244.5/ 246244.1516.08.2019245.9521:00 hr 22.08.20221.8 m~26 hrs
15Devlia KhurdDai/ ChambalAjmer/ Rajasthan 318.3517.08.2019318.401:00 hr 23.08.20220.05 m~07 hrs
16LakheriMej/ ChambalBundi/ Rajasthan 210.2606.08.2021215.0520:00 hr 24.08.20224.79 m~63 hrs
17Satay-narayanSong/ GangaDehradun/ Uttarakhand337.2/ 338.2338.4928.06.2019338.807:00 hr 20.08.20220.31 m~01 hr
18ChansuraSone/ GangaUmaria/ MP 334.817.09.2021346.5500:00 hr 22.08.20221.75 m~24 hrs
19Vijay Raghav-garhTons/ GangaKatni/ MP 342.3629.08.2020346.4503:00 hr 22.08.20224.09 m~21 hrs
20NaurhiaTons/ GangaSidhi/ MP 300.713.08.2019301.112:00 hr 21.08.20220.4 m~6 hrs
21AtrauliKali/ GangaAligarh/ Uttar Pradesh 175.9128.09.2019177.820:00 hr 23.09.20221.89 m~96 hrs

2. MAHANADI BASIN

All the 10 HFL beach incidents in Mahanadi basin have taken place at LM sites of which 7 are in Odisha and 3 in Chhattisgarh state. As per the CWC records, the old HFL for 5 of the rivers was attained in 2014 and 2 each in 2019 and 2020. Only 1 site – Adhiyar Khore on Hamp river in Chhattisgarh – has breached HFL after 28 years. The Pairi river at Malgaon site has breached old HFL thrice in this season. All the new HFLs have been attained between 12 and 17 August, 2022 in Mahanadi basin.

Hydrographs showing rivers in extreme flood situation in Mahanadi basin in Chhattisgarh & Odisha states in SW monsoon 2022

Table 2: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Mahandi Basin

SNSiteRiver/
Basin
District/
State
Old HFL,
M
DateNew HFL,
M
Time/
Date
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1BoudhMahanadiAnugul/ Odisha88.614.08.201989.3504:00 hr 16.08.20220.35 m~31 hrs
2TarpurMahanadiJagat-singhapur/ Odisha11.6208.08.201411.6505:00 hr 17.08.20220.03 m~12 hrs
3MalgaonPairi/ MahanadiGariaband/ Chhattisgarh326.6708.08.2019327.8605:00 hr 16.08.20221.19 m~30 hrs
      327.2809:00 hr 10.08.20220.61 m~19 hrs
      326.7109:00 hr 14.07.20220.04 m~01 hr
4Andhiyar KhoreHamp/ MahanadiBemetara/ Chhattisgarh260.1509.10.1994260.215:00 hr 12.08.20220.05 m~07 hrs
5ManiyariManiari/ MahanadiMungeli/ Chhattisgarh235.8830.08.2020236.2313:00 hr 13.08.20220.35 m~30 hrs
6BalakatiBhargavi/ MahanadiKhordha/ Odisha16.5107.08.201416.7704:00 hr 17.08.20220.26 m~29 hrs
7BalangaBhargavi/ MahanadiPuri/ Odisha11.931.08.202012.209:00 hr 17.08.20220.3 m~42 hrs
8Daya Rd BridgeDaya/ MahanadiKhordha/ Odisha16.3707.08.201416.7404:00 hr 17.08.20220.37 m~35 hrs
9Kathajori Rd BridgeKathajori/ MahandiCuttack/ Odisha22.1607.08.201422.2804:00 hr 17.08.20220.12 m~19 hrs
10BhingarpurKusavadra/ MahanadiKhordha/ Odisha15.7107.08.201415.84 m07:00 hr 17.08.20220.13 m~15 hrs

3. NARMADA BASIN

All the 8 sites in Narmada basin breaching HFLs are LM sites in Madhya Pradesh. 4 of the new HFL have been attained in July, 2 in August and 1 in September 2022. The old HFL has been crossed thrice at Machak at Barangi site on Narmada river.

Table 3: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Narmada Basin

SNSiteRiver/ BasinDistrict/
State
Old HFL,
M
DateNew HFL,
M
Time/
Date
Rise above old HFL, MAbove HFL for hours
1Machak at BarangiNarmadaHarda/ MP272.7225.08.2019276.711:00 hr 18.07.20223.98 m~02 hrs
      275.3514:00 hr 13.07.20222.63 m~07 hrs
      273.509:00 hr 10.07.20220.78~02 hrs
2Abna at KhandwaNarmadaKhandwa/ MP301.206.08.2019301.2720:00 hr 18.07.20220.25 m~02 hrs
3Hathed at MisrodNarmadaHoshangabad/ MP29712.08.2019297.3518:00 hr 18.07.20220.35 m~07 hrs
4Beda at SatwadiBeda/ NarmadaKhargone/ MP202.3209.08.2019205.5200:00 hr 14.07.20223.2 m~07 hrs
5Dudhi at PanagarDudhi/ NarmadaNarshimhapur/ MP331.322.07.202233214:00 hr 15.08.20220.7 m~09 hrs
6Tenduni at MaheshwarTenduni/ NarmadaRaisen/ MP315.0509.09.2019315.415:00 hr 16.08.20220.35 m~06 hrs
7Deb at KhajuriDeb/ NarmadaBarwani/ MP179.6809.08.2019180.118:00 hr 01.09.20220.42 m~06 hrs
8Kalimachak at CharuwaNarmadaHarda/ MPNANA286.209:00 hr 18.07.2022NA~01 hrs

4. MAHI BASIN

There is only 1 LM site at Amarpura on Som river in Mahi basin which has crossed old HFL on 24.08.2022.

Table 4: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Mahi Basin

SNSiteRiver/ BasinDistrict/
State
Old HFL, MDateNew HFL, MTime/
Date
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1AmarpuraSom/ MahiUdaipur/ Rajasthan288.9610.08.2019289.4601:00 hr 24.08.20220.5 m~25 hrs

5. GODAVARI BASIN

Of 7 sites breaching old HFL in Godavari basin 3 are LF sites all in Telengana and 4 are LM sites all in Maharashtra state. The Sirpur LF site in Kumuram Bheem and Ghugus LM site in Chandrapur districts both on Wardha river have crossed old HFL twice in this season.  

Hydrographs of rivers breaching HFL in Godavari basin in Telangana state.

6 of the new HFL has been attained between 12-19 July 2022 and only 1 in third week of August 2022. The Kaleswaram site on Godavari in Telangana and Mungoli site on Penganga in Maharashtra have breached HFL after 26 years. The Mancherial, Patala and Sakoli Bridge sites have attained new HFLs after 27 and 28 years. 

Hydrographs of rivers flowing in extreme flood situation in Godavari basin in Maharashtra.

The CWC has now listed Sirpur site on Wardha river in Kumuram Bheem district in Telangana after the river at the site crossed old HFL in July 2022. It was earlier listed in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra.

Table 5: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Godavari Basin

SNSiteRiverDistrict/
State
WL/
DL,
M
Old HFL,
M
DateNew HFL,
M
Time/
Date  
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1MancherialGodavariAdilabad/ Telangana133.316/ 134.816137.38620.10.1995139.13606:00 hr 14.07.20221.75 m~22 hrs
2KaleswaramGodavariBhupalpally/ Telengana130.5/ 104.75107.0515.08.1986108.1802:00 hr 15.07.20221.13 m~30 hrs
3SirpurWardha/ GodavariKumuram Bheem/ Telanganga159.95/ 160.95161.3418.08.2018162.5704:00 hr 15.07.20221.23 m~71 hrs
       162.5506:00 hrs 21.07.20221.21 m~43 hrs
4MungoliPenganga/ GodavariYavatmal/ Maharashtra 97.5514.08.1986100.8412:00 hr 14.07.20223.29 m~66 hrs
5GhugusWardha/ GodavariChandrapur/ Maharashtra 182.4317.07.2013185.4806:00 hr 20.07.20223.05 m~38 hrs
       182.8421:00 hr 12.08.20220.41 m~54 hrs
6PatalaWardha/ GodavariChandrapur/ Maharashtra 189.7713.07.1994194.3118:00 hr 19.07.20224.54 m~48 hrs
7Sakoli BridgeChulband/ GodavariBhandara/ Maharashtra 242.1315.07.1994242.320:00 hr 15.08.20220.17 m~06 hrs

6. KRISHNA BASIN

All 3 sites breaching old HFL in Krishna basin are LM sites of which 1 is in Telangana & 2 are in Karnataka. CWC has not provided Warning Level (WL) for Lakkavalli & Hooinahole sites.

Hydrographs of rivers crossing HFL in Krishna basin in Telangana & Karnataka.

Though CWC claims updating HFL for new sites during monsoon season and for old sites after monsoon season as per its SoP, however it abruptly updated the HFL for Hoovinahole site which had attained old HFL in 1999. There have been many such instances during monsoon month showing inconsistency in maintaining HFL record by CWC.

Table 6: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Krishna Basin

SNSiteRiver/ BasinDistrict/
State
WL/ DL,
M
Old HFL,
M
DateNew HFL,
M
Time/
Date
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1AnantharamMusi/ KrishnaNalgonda/ Telangana 230.2114.10.2020230.706:00 hr 23.07.20220.49 m~13 hrs
2LakkavalliBhadra/ KrishnaChikmagalur/ Karnataka608.75 (DL)609.9907.09.2019613.1415:00 hr 15.07.20223.15 m~67 hrs
3HoovinaholeSwarna-mukhi/ KrishnaChitradurga/ Karnataka95 (DL)97.7113.10.199997.7806.09.20220.07 m~05 hrs

7. CUAVERY BASIN

All 6 sites crossing old HFL in Cauvery basin are LF sites of which 1 is in Tamil Nadu and 5 are in Karnataka state. CWC has wrongly listed T. Bekkupe and Kokkedoddy sites in Mandya district and have changed them to Ramnagar district after highlighted by SANDRP. The WL and DL for T. Bekkupe site have been changed.

Hydrograph of Urachikottai LF site on Cauvery river in Erode district Tamil Nadu breaching HFL.

CWC has wrongly mentioned old HFL 585.925 m for T.K. Halli site on Shimsa river and changed it to 585.95 m after mentioned by SANDRP.

Hydrographs of river crossing HFL in Cauvery basin Karnataka.

5 of the new HFLs are attained in August month and 1 in September 2022. The Cauvery river at Urachikottai site has breached old HFL after 41 years while T.K. Halli site on Shimsa river has crossed old HFL after 38 years.

Hydrographs of Suvarnavathi river at Bendrahalli LF site in Cauvery basin in Chamarajanagar district Karnataka crossing HFL.

The Suvarnavathi river at Bendrahalli site crossed 2013 HFL several times. Again contradicting its HFL updation SoP, the CWC updated HFL for the site during monsoon. If its 2013 HFL is considered the river remained in extreme flood situation for more the 100 hours in first and last week of August 2022. 

Table 7: Rivers Breaching HFLs in Cauvery Basin

SNSiteRiver/
Basin
District/ StateWL/ DL,
M
Old
HFL,
M
DateNew HFL, MTime/
Date
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1UrachikottaiCauveryErode/ Tamil Nadu163/ 164162.9212.09.1981165.9519:00 hr 04.08.20220.03~07 hrs
2T. BekkupeArkavathi/ CauveryRamnagar/ Karnataka606/ 608606.9503.10.2019610.5207:00 hr 30.08.20223.57 m~07 hrs
    605/ 605.5  608.9529.08.2022~ 2m~2 hrs
3KokkedoddyArkavathi/ CauveryRamnagar/ Karnataka372.6/ 373.6373.0609.10.2017374.2510:00 hr 30.08.20221.19 m~08 hrs
4Thoreshetta-halliShimsa/ CauveryMandya/ Karnataka624/ 626624.5921.11.2021627.113:00 hr 02.08.20222.51 m~65 hrs
5T.K. HalliShimsa/ CauveryMandya/ Karnataka584./ 585.5585.95 585.925*03.10.1984588.0501:00 hr 04.08.20222.1 m~67 hrs
6BendrahalliSuvarnavathi/ CauveryChamaraja-nagar Karnataka634/ 634.5634.713.09.2013638.0313:00 hr 06.09.20223.33 m~3 hrs
       638.0111:00 hr 30.08.20223.31 m~100 hrs
       636.3315:00 hr 06.08.20221.63 m~126 hr

8. East Flowing Rivers between Pennar & Kanyakumari

The Ponnaiyar river at Singasadanapalli site has breached old HFL thrice in south west monsoon season. The old HFL was attained in November 2021. The new HFL is 1.66 m higher than the old HFL and river has remained in extreme flood situation for about 90 hours at the end of first week in September 2022.

Hydrographs tracking HFL breach incidents by Ponnaiyar river at Singasadanapalli station in Krishnagiri district Tamil Nadu.

Table 8: Rivers Breaching HFLs in EFR between Pennar & Kanyakumari

SNSiteRiver/ BasinDistrict/ StateWL/ DL, MOld HFL, MDateNew HFL, MTime/
Date
Rise above old HFLAbove HFL for hours
1Singa-sadanapalliPonnaiyarKrishnagiri/ Tamil Nadu844.5/ 845845.7320.11.2021847.3917:00 hr 07.09.20221.66 m~90 hrs
       845.8517:00 hr 29.08.2022 10:00 hr & 17:00 hr 30.08.20220.12 m~23 hr
       845.7809:00 hr 26.08.20220.05 m~01 hr

Rivers Flowing Close to HFL  

Apart from the HFL breach incidents at 57 sites, there have been 10 sites including 7 LF and 3 LM sites where rivers missed breaching HFL with narrow margins. At Basua site on Kosi, Kanas (S) on Daya and Tumnar on Dantewada, the rivers have even touched the old HFL. The flood level of Daya river at Kanas (S) stayed parallel to old HFL for 3 days from 20 to 23 August 2022.

Hydrographs of rivers which either touched the HFL or rose close to HFL in SW monsoon season 2022.

Table 9: Rivers Flowing Close to HFL

SNSiteRiver/
Basin
District/
State
WL/ DL, MHFL, MDatePeak LevelTime/
Date
Missed crossing HFL by metres
1AuraiyaYamunaAuraiya/ UP112/ 113118.5106.08.2021117.9810:00 hr 27.08.20220.53 m
2KalpiYamunaJalaun/ UP107/ 108112.9825.08.1996112.9314:00 hr 27.08.20220.05 m
3AkleraParwan/ ChambalJhalawar/ Rajasthan308/ 309314.4521.08.1996313.7513:00 hr 23.08.20220.70 m
4BarodKalisindh/ ChambalKota/ Rajasthan210/ 215223.823.08.1986223.3911:00 hr 24.08.20220.44 m
5Unnao BalajiPahuj/ YamunaDatia/ MP 207.7615.08.2019207.616:00 hr 15.09.20220.16 m
6Kachhla- bridgeGangaBadaun161/ 162162.7924.09.2010162.7301:00 hr 24.08.20220.06 m
       162.6313:00 hr 2.09.20220.16 m
7BasuaKosi/ GangaSupaul/ Bihar46.75/ 47.7549.2413.08.201749.2419:00 hr 02.08.2022HFL Touched
       49.0622:00 hr 07.08.20220.18
8Kanas (S)Daya/ MahanadiPuri/ Odisha 5.5702.09.20205.57 3 days21:00 hr 08.08.2022HFL Touched
9TumnarDantewada/ GodavariDantewada/ Chhattisgarh 326.8304.09.1994326.8314:00 hr 08.08.2022HFL Touched
10Penneswa-ramadamPonnaiyar/ EFR btwn Pennar- KanyakumariKrishnagiri/ Tamil Nadu 447.5219.11.2021447.4616:00 30.08.20220.06

CWC Changing HFL in Ad-hoc Manner

Additionally, there have been 6 sites where CWC abruptly changed the HFL only after the respective sites crossed the old HFL. This and some other relevant issues regarding CWC’s flood monitoring work have already been flagged by SANDRP in a detailed blog which can be seen here[viii]

Hydrographs of rivers whose HFL was raised by CWC only after breaching the HFL.

Table 9: Details of sites where CWC abruptly changed HFL

SiteRiver/ BasinDistrict/ StateOld HFL (m)DatePeakDateNew HFL (m)DateRaise (m)
Pailani DeraKen/ YamunaBanda/ UP102.2820.09.2019102.8227.08.22104.4520.09.20192.17 m
LamyariBaghain/ YamunaChitrakoot/ UP94.223.09.201994.4227.08.22101.221.09.20197 m
MarkaYamunaBanda/ UP97.0721.09.201999.1627.08.2299.5920.09.20192.52 m
SardhuaPaisuni/ YamunaChitrakoot/ UP90.0721.09.201991.0427.08.2299.0721.09.20199 m
Silgi KotraiNarmadaDindori/ MP513.6508.08.2019513.9522.08.22514.522.08.20220.85 m
ChintruSabri/ GodavariAS Raju/ Andhra Pradesh44.9118.08.202047.3715.07.2250.4216.08.19865.51 m

River Basin Wise Summary

In SW monsoon 2022, the HFL crossing incidents have occurred at 57 sites consisting of 42 LM and 15 LF sites in 8 river basins. The Ganga basin has seen maximum HFL breach incidents-21 followed by 10 in Mahanadi basin, 8 in Narmada, 7 in Godavari basins, 6 in Cauvery, 3 in Krishna and 1 each in Mahi and East Flowing Rivers (EFR) between Pennar & Kanyakumari. 

Hydrograph of Song river in Dehradun breaching HFL at Sataynarayan LF station after cloud burst incident.

Table 10: River Basin wise HFL Breach Incidents in SW Monsoon 2022

SNBasinStatesLevel MonitoringLevel ForecastTotal
1GangaUttarakhand010102
  Uttar Pradesh060006
  Rajasthan020406
  Madhya Pradesh070007
   160521
      
2MahanadiOdisha070007
  Chhattisgarh030003
   100010
      
 3NarmadaMadhya Pradesh080008
      
4MahiRajasthan010001
      
5GodavariTelangana000303
  Maharashtra040004
   040307
      
6KrishnaTelangana 010001
  Karnataka020002
   030003
      
7CuaveryTamil Nadu000101
  Karnataka000505
   000606
      
8EFR between Pennar
& Kanyakumari
Tamil Nadu000101
 Sub-Total 421557

Month and State Wise Summary

More than half of HFL breach incidents (34) have happened in August followed by 13 in July, 8 in Sept and 2 Oct.

Out of these 57 HFL breach incidents, the 36 sites are located in 4 states of Madhya Pradesh (15), Rajasthan (7), Odisha (7) and Karnataka (7). The remaining 21 sites are located in 6 states of Uttar Pradesh (6), Telangana (4), Maharashtra (4), Chhattisgarh (3), Uttarakhand (2) and Tamil Nadu (2). None of them are in traditional flood prone states of Bihar, Assam or W Bengal.

Hydrographs of Chambal rivers, Betwa, Ken breaching HFL in SW monsoon season in MP, Rajasthan and UP states.

Table 11: Month wise HFL Breach Incidents in SW Monsoon 2022

Month River  Basin   No.
 GangaMahanadiNarmadaMahiGodavariKrishnaCauveryWFR Pennar &
Kanya-kumari
 
July000005000602000013
August151002010100050034
Sept.040001000001010108
Oct.020000000000000002
Total211008010703060157

In addition to the above sites, there have been 5 sites where rivers have breached old HFL and 6 sites where rivers have rose close to old HFL in pre-monsoon and monsoon months of May and June 2022. The details of these sites can be seen here[ix]. If these 5 sites are also counted, there would be 62 sites crossing HFL in pre and SW monsoon season 2022 which is highest in last 5 years since SANDRP has started documenting these incidents.

Unprecedentedly, the river Kopili at Kampur site in Nagaon district, Assam has remained in extreme flood situation for 6 days[x] after breaching the HFL in May 2022. Similar trend is noticed for Kalsi site on Amlav river in Yamuna basin and Bendrahalli site on Suvarnavathi river in Cauvery basin in August 2022.

While maintaining HFL breach record is essential part of CWC’s work, the agency has shown a poor track record for the same. Though it published daily flood summary reports during flood season, hardly any of these reports have mentioned of the HFL breach incidents for reasons best known to CWC only. SANDRP has been underlining so many other gross errors regarding the issue and has seen no improvement from CWC so far.

Indeed, CWC has a long way to improve its flood monitoring work. It must put the HFL breach incidents in public domain at the end of monsoon season and must include at least record of 3 past HFL for each site on its hydrographs and website. 

Bhim Singh Rawat (bhim.sandrp@gamil.com)

References:


[i] https://sandrp.in/2022/10/01/sw-monsoon-2022-district-wise-rainfall-in-india/

[ii] https://sandrp.in/2018/11/08/hfl-crossing-flood-events-during-india-sw-monsoon-2018/

[iii] https://sandrp.in/2019/10/29/rivers-that-cross-highest-flood-level-during-sw-monsoon-2019/

[iv] https://sandrp.in/2020/10/03/rivers-that-reached-new-highest-flood-level-during-monsoon-2020/

[v] https://sandrp.in/2021/10/05/rivers-that-breached-hfl-in-south-west-monsoon-2021/

[vi] https://sandrp.in/2021/12/12/rivers-crossing-hfls-in-oct-nov-2021/

[vii] https://sandrp.in/2022/07/14/rivers-breaching-and-flowing-close-to-hfls-in-may-june-2022/

[viii] https://sandrp.in/2022/08/31/monsoon-2022-cwc-changing-hfls-in-ad-hock-manner/ 

[ix] https://sandrp.in/2022/07/14/rivers-breaching-and-flowing-close-to-hfls-in-may-june-2022/

[x] https://sandrp.in/2022/06/01/assam-kopili-river-flows-above-kampur-hfl-for-6-days-in-pre-monsoon-season/

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