Dams · Yamuna River

Yamuna Jayanti 2020: Bridges-Connecting People, Disconnecting River?

Bridges are essential infrastructure for human and cargo mobility across a river. They have also allowed us stop over and gaze on the beauty of flowing water streams without any risk of getting drowned or getting ourselves drenched in water. More and more bridges are being built on rivers without understating their impacts. There is hardly any debate or discussion on governance and decision making process or minimum distances to be maintained between two bridges or limiting the number of bridges on given stretch, considering what the river can support. This report takes a look at the situation of bridges on river Yamuna and describes few examples how they have been impacting the river eco-system. 

Bridges on River Yamuna

The main stem of River Yamuna flows through five states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. The total length of river is 1376 km and it’s divided into five segments[i]. Through Google earth maps we could mark 131 bridges along the river which includes 6 barrages cum road bridges, 12 railway bridges and about 6 pontoon bridges. There are also half a dozen foot bridges in Himalayan segment which have not been counted in this exercise.

Segment Places Km No. of bridges Average distance between the bridges
Himalayan Origin to Tajewala Barrage 172 20 8.60 km
Upper Hathini Kund to Wazirabad Barrage 224 11 20.00 km
Delhi Wazirabad to Okhla Barrage 22 25 0.88 km
Eutriphied Okhla to Chambal Confluence 490 44 11.36 km
Diluted Chambal Con. to Ganga Confluence 468 27 17.30 km
1376 127 10.80 km

Issues and concerns: Himalayan segment

SN Name District/City Type
1 Janki Chatti Uttrakashi Road
2 Janki Chatti Uttrakashi Road
3 Syana Chatti Uttrakashi Road
4 Rana Chatti Uttrakashi Road
5 Kuthnor Uttrakashi Road
6 Kishala Uttrakashi Road
7 Khanera Uttrakashi Road
8 Kharadi Uttrakashi Road
9 Rajgarhi Uttrakashi Road
10 Badkot Uttrakashi Road
11 Naugaon Uttrakashi Road
12 Naugaon 2 Uttrakashi Road
13 Burnigad Dehradun Road
14 Damta Uttrakashi Road
15 Nainbagh Tehri Road
16 Lakhwar Dehradun Road
17 Juddo Dehradun Road
18 Kalsi Dehradun Road
19 Katapathar Dehradun Barrage cum Bridge
20 Ponta Sahib Sirmaur Road

This segment is prone to landslides, flash floods and earthquakes. Due to landslides at Kishala in Badkot, two additional bridges were built on Yamuna river in the past.

1 Y
Bridge connecting Than-Nagangaon was washed away in 2013 floods and has not been repaired so far. 

The story of Kharadi bridge connecting Badkot to Nagangaon is very disappointing. The bridge was damaged in June 2013 flood during Kedarnath disaster. Seven years later, it has not been fully restored impacting mobility of people and supply of essential materials.

The construction work of Lakhwar dam, Vikas Nagar has led to construction of two new bridges at Juddo and Nainbagh. This segment also has Dakpathar Barrage cum Road Bridge. In past an old bridge at Kalsi was washed away and a new bridge has been constructing replacing it.

Upper Segment

SN Name District/City Type
1 Hathini Kund Yamuna Nagar Barrage cum Bridge
2 Kalanaur Yamuna Nagar Railway
3 Kalanaur Yamuna Nagar Road Old
4 Kalanaur Yamuna Nagar Road New
5 Sandhala Yamuna Nagar Road Proposed
6 Gangoli Karnal Newly Built
7 Badoli Karnal Road
8 Sanoli Panipat Road
9 Bhalgarh Sonipat Road
10 Eastern Peripheral Way Sonipat Road
11 Eastern Peripheral Way Sonipat Road

In this stretch the bridges including Hathini Kund Barrage cum Road bridge are connecting Haryana and Uttar Pradesh state. The new road bridge at Kalanaur has suffered damages during 2010 floods and was closed. At the time the earlier British era bridge left unused was opened for traffic movement. Presently one more road bridge has been built at the location which has not been counted in this exercise. 

Similarly, the Lal Bahadur Sharhtri bridge connecting Panipat-Kairana and the Shahmal Tomar bridge (Bhalgarh) linking Sonipat and Baghpat has suffered damages during floods in last decade.

Recently two bridges have come up as part of Eastern Peripheral Way (EPW) close to Delhi Haryana border on the Yamuna river.

One new bridge Gangoli has been built at Karnal linking Saharanpur district. And another one is proposed at Sandhala at Yamuna Nagar. The Gangoli bridge is notable example of how the bridges are disconnecting the floodplain and affecting the flood water spread during monsoon.

The Gangoli bridge construction was started around 2012 and it has become operational in 2019. The floodplain spread is about 1.8 km but the elevated part of the bridge is hardly 600 meter. The bunds has been created right into the river and guide bunds have been built in the flood plain to protect the structure.

Due to faulty design portion of Gangoli bridge linking Karnal to Saharanpur has been washed away in 2019 floods. 

The Google earth image clearly shows that it has impacted active river channels on both banks. Actually it is an invitation to flood disaster in the area. In 2019 a part of bridge bund at Karnal side was washed away.  However, the Irrigation Department Saharanpur has again earth filled the portion.

It is noteworthy here that this upper stretch of the Yamuna basin has been facing large scale mechanized and illegal mining of riverbed materials.

In the past, the menace has led to collapse of British era Tajewala barrage and constantly presenting threat to Hathinikund barrage, both in Yamuna Nagar.

Delhi stretch  

SN Name District/City Types
1 Wazirabad Delhi Barrage cum Bridge
2 Signature Bridge Delhi Road
3 Signature Bridge Delhi Road
4 ISBT Kashmiri Gate Delhi Road
5 ISBT Kashmiri Gate Delhi Road
6 ISBT Metro Delhi Metro
7 Old Railway Bridge Delhi Railway
8 Railway Bridge Delhi Under Construction
9 Geeta Colony Delhi Road
10 Geeta Colony Delhi Road
11 ITO Delhi Barrage cum Bridge
12 ITO Delhi Road
13 Yamuna Bank Delhi Metro
14 Railway Delhi Railway
15 NH 24 Delhi Road
16 NH 24 Delhi Road
17 NH 24 Delhi Road
18 Mayur Vihar Delhi Metro
19 Barapula Delhi Under Construction
20 DND Delhi Road
21 DND Delhi Road
22 Okhala Delhi Barrage cum Bridge
23 Okhala Delhi Road
24 Okhala Delhi Metro
25 Okhala Delhi Road

*The name of bridges repeated here are two lanes with separate structure on the river. The total length of river in Delhi is 48 km of which urban stretch heavily bridges is 22 km long. The remaining 26 km stretch lying between Palla the entry point of river in Delhi upto Wazirabad Barrage is covered under Upper segment. Interesting there is not a single bridge in that 26km stretch so far.  

*Bridges connecting Central past of city to East Delhi, Noida, Gaziabad mentioned as NH 24 in the tabular format are three different bridges of which two double lane bridges have been built in last 7 years in addition of metro bridge leading to Mayur Vihar. The road is originally known as Gurjar Smart Mihir Bhoj Setu and road.  

The situation regarding bridges on Yamuna river in Delhi is quite alarming as so far 25 road bridges including 3 barrages cum bridges, 4 metro bridges, two railway bridges have come up on the river. In addition, one railway and one road bridge as part of Old Railway Bridge and Barapula extension are under construction.

Google map showing bridges on River Yamuna in Delhi. 

So in a stretch of 22 km which accounts for only 2 per cent of total Yamuna river length, there will soon be at least 27 bridges. Compare this with 33 bridges built and proposed in first two segments spanning 396 kms. Thus on an average, there is a bridge on Yamuna river in Delhi after every 800 metre.

Almost all the road bridges including the barrage roads have been extended into double lanes. The Signature bridge is most recent one. At NH 24 connecting Nizammudin to East Delhi, Noida and Ghaziabad, back to back four road and 1 metro bridges have been built in last one decade.

Back to back four bridges on NH 24 near Akshardham has been impacted flood water passage and spread. Image Bhim Singh Rawat/SANDRP, Augt. 2019. 

So many of these bridges have fragmented the floodplain and affected spread of flood water during monsoon. Moreover these bridges have been facilitating official, illegal encroachments of the riverbed. Creation of guide bunds to protect the bridge structures, grabbing of large floodplain area in lieu of space for maintenance facilities and dumping of construction material are other among major concerns resulting in negative impacts of bridges on river eco-system.

In true sense there bridges are horizontal bunds on floodplain, having elevated path only over active flow of the river while constraining the flood water spread and passage.

In addition to the cross sectional structures the floodplain has been confined between extension of ring roads from both side in the city. Additional around 3.5km long road has been created from Old Railway Bridge to ITO along western bank and about 4km of Pushta road has been extended into floodplain from eastern side channelizing the river.

Recently National Green Tribunal (NGT) has allowed construction[ii] of one more bridge downstream Wazirabad barrage which was proposed under phase IV for Maujpur-Majlis metro line.

Eutriphied Segment

SN Name District/City Types
1 Manjhawali Faridabad Under Construction
2 Eastern Peripheral Way Faridabad Road
3 Eastern Peripheral Way Faridabad Road
4 Chainsha Faridabad Pontoon
5 Mohna Mohna Road
6 Palwal Palwal Road
7 Shergarh Mathura Road
8 Vrindavan Vrindavan Wood Bridge
9 Vrindavan Vrindavan Road
10 Mathura Mathura Railway
11 Mathura Mathura Road Old
12 Mathura Mathura Road New
13 Gokul Barrage Mathura Barrage cum Bridge
14 Gokul Mathura Road
15 Mauni Baba Mathura Road
16 Jugsana Mathura Road
17 Nera Bangar Agra Road
18 Kailash Mandir Agra Road
19 Poiya Agra Pontoon
20 Jawahar Agra Road
21 Jawahar Agra Road
22 Ambedkar Agra Road
23 Strachey Agra Road
24 Railway Agra Rail Cum Road
25 Yamuna Express Way Agra Road
26 Yamuna Express Way Agra Road
27 Pontoon Agra Pontoon
28 Sikrara Agra Road
29 Indon Agra Road
30 Shankarpur Agra Road
31 Agra Lucknow Expressway Agra Road
32 Agra Lucknow Expressway Agra Road
33 Balai Bateshwar Road
34 Rapri Agra Road
35 Kachpura Agra Road
36 Bauth Agra Road
37 Kachoura Agra Road
38 Railway Etawah Railway
39 Udi Etawah Road
40 Etawah Etawah Road
41 Pontoon Etawah Pontoon
42 Navada Etawah Under Construction
43 Takrupur Etawah Road
44 Sikrodi Etawah Road

*The name of bridges repeated here are two lanes with separate structure on the river.

In the 490 km long stretch between Okhala Barrage and Chambal river confluence, there are 44 bridges including 4 rail bridges and 1 barrage cum road bridge at Gokul in Mathura district in UP. This stretch also has 4 pontoon bridges which were first built during the British rule. Most of the bridges have been built in the last two decades. On an averagely there is a bridge after about every 12 km.

Out of these, 18 bridges are located in about 70 km stretch between Vrindavan to Agra and the 25 are lying on along 420 km river length upto confluence with Chambal river. The cities of Mathura (5) and Agra (9) have 14 numbers of bridges while they cover around 35 km river length.  There is at least one railway and one road bridge under construction in Agra which have not been counted here as they were not visible on Google earth map.  

Diluted Segment

SN Name District/City Types
1 Asewa Etawah Pontoon
2 Karandevi Etawah Road
3 Devkali Auraiya Road
4 Khojarampur Jaluan Under Construction
5 Kalpi Kalpi Road
6 Kalpi Kalpi Road
7 Kalpi Kalpi Railway
8 Kalpi Kalpi Railway Under Construction
9 Musanagar Kalpi Road
10 Hamirpur Hamirpur Road
11 Hamirpur Hamirpur Railway
12 Gangoli Hamirpur Pontoon
13 Gangoli Hamirpur Road
14 Manduli Hamirpur Road
15 Chilla Banda Road
16 Chilla Banda Road New
17 Bedaghat Banda Road
18 Augasi Banda Road
19 Ekdla Fatehpur Road Under Construction
20 Rajapur Chitrakoot Road
21 Mau Mau Road Under Construction
22 Pratapur Mau Road
23 DFC Allahabad Road
24 Naini Allahabad Railway
25 Naini Allahabad Railway
26 Naini Allahabad Road
27 Naini Allahabad Road

 *The name of bridges repeated here are two lanes with separate structure on the river.

In 468 km length of Yamuna river from its confluence with Chambal to Ganga, there are 28 bridges of which 6 are railway bridges and 2 are pontoon bridges. This also includes under construction road bridges at Mau, Ekdla and Railway Bridge at Kalpi. Chambal, Betwa, Ken and Sindh rivers are joining the Yamuna making it comparatively better navigable, hence use of small and passenger boats is still common. The stretch provides habitats to dolphins and constructional activities are impacting their habitats and movements.  

Expert views

So more than 120 bridges have already been built along entire length of Yamuna, with more under construction, in pipeline. The situation in urban areas is quite worrying with Delhi being the worst example. However not many river experts in India are raising the issue of impacts of the bridges on the rivers.

Impact Assessment of Bridges and Barrages on River Yamuna.pdf

A 2009 study by Environics Trust titled Impact Assessment of Bridges and Barrages on River Yamuna in Delhi[iii] has found that the river has been segmented by several road and rail bridges. These structures, largely for economic considerations, have been built as embankments for all but the small segment of the flow-channel thus hindering the natural expanse of floodplains and increasing flood vulnerability.

It concluded that considering the typical nature of river Yamuna in NCT of Delhi, each structure coming over the River adds multiple impacts of different orders and recommended a careful examination and integration of process including Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) with a special focus on upstream and downstream structures already existing along with simultaneous hydraulic study and alternatives before taking any decisions on the clearance of a project. The study also objected to use of fly ash as a land fill for brides observing that it would have detrimental impact on the floodplain system.

Yamuna Jiye Abhiyan (YJA) working for floodplain protection and revival of river Yamuna terms the modern bridges as pseudo bridges not built embankment to embankment like the Old Railway Bridge with sufficient room and height for passage and spread of flood water. “To believe bridges on rivers are harmless structures is a false notion. In Delhi all the bridges except old railway bridge are pseudo bridges severely restricting the meandering of river”, says Manoj Misra, convener YJA. 

He further says that the modern bridges are only considering the lean season flows and ignoring flood cycle thus disrupting flood water spread, damaging the floodplains and they are in true sense cross section embankments on the river. 

Indeed the increasing number of bridges are impacting fluvial morphology by altering the sedimentation process and flood water spread.

Bridges on NH 24, Delhi has facilitated abuse of Yamuna floodplain. Image Bhim Singh Rawat/SANDRP, Feb. 2020.  

As per Dr. Venkatesh Dutta, Gomti River Water-keeper too many bridges over a river alter the flow regime of the river. Over a long time, even the channel morphology and deposition dynamics get badly impacted. Form and functions of many rivers in the urban stretch have been damaged by road crossing and improperly designed bridges.

“If you construct over a dozen bridges over a small span of say 20 km, you essentially change the bankfull channel depth, cross-section area, flow velocity, pool-riffle sequence, sand bars and many other morphometric parameters. It can also leads to severe bed degradation and distorted bed gradient in the downstream resulting in loss of habitat. Ultimately, you make unsuitable environment for aquatic life”, says Dr. Venkatesh Dutta.

According to him the situation in India, especially in the urban stretch is really grim and bridges after bridges are being erected in a relatively short river span due to rising transport network and vehicular density.

Activist Vikrant Tongad who has raised objection against construction of Signature Bridge on River Yamuna without credible EIA in NGT says that the stand alone bridges are covered in draft EIA notification but there is lack of compliance of set conditions (please see NGT order here[iv]). “While NGT has admitted covering 20,000 sqkm construction area which has been increased to 1.50 lakh sqkm area by union environment ministry which has defeated the purpose”, adds Vikrant who heads Social Action for Forest and Environment (SAFE).

Gangoli bridge, Karnal being repaired post damages in 2019 monsoon. Image Bhim Singh Rawat/SANDRP, Oct. 2019. 

Conclusion Most of the bridges have been built at Ghats where in past, boats were commonly used to ferry people and materials across the river. They have been given name of ancient rulers or legendary leaders. There are only two road cum railway bridges on river Yamuna: one each in Delhi and Agra. From experience, it seems the British era bridges are studier and have well taken flood and floodplains into consideration.

Most of the conventional bridges have been jolted by floods in upper segment of Yamuna. Recently built and under construction bridges particularly road bridges are ignoring flood cycles and floodplain before starting construction.

To cut the construction cost, involved companies are keeping less portion on elevation and more on bunds. Such bridges necessitate additional construction of guide bunds which further eat into riverbed land. The number and size of pillars also have impact on spread and impact of floods.

More and more bridges are being built in urban areas on River Yamuna river without assessing possible impact on river, flood spread and floodplains. While bridges are essential for public mobility, there are no specific laws in India to assess, appraise and monitor for compliance of the proposals for bridges on river eco-system. There are apparently no norms for minimum distance between bridges, the size and height of pillars, flood path to be left for the river and number of bridges that could be allowed in a given stretch of a river.

An active river channel downstream bridges on NH 24 has been completely disconnected with the river on account of four bridges at same place. Image Bhim Singh Rawat/SANDRP, Feb. 2020. 

Such bridges are fragmenting the floodplains, straight jacketing the river patch which has adverse impacts on river eco-system. Significant changes on flowing pattern, sediment deposition could be seen upstream and downstream of barrages cum bridges and where bridges have been built recently.

This is urgent and emerging issue, requiring immediate attention of all concerned. Hope everyone, including the government agencies would start taking concrete steps in undoing the impact of such bridges and refrain from constructing new bridges without complete, credible impact assessment before these brides turn into a flood disaster or ruin the river and floodplain ecosystem forever. Clearly defined norms for bridge design and construction are also urgently required.

Happy Yamuna Jayanti 2020!

Bhim Singh Rawat (bhim.sandrp@gmail.com

About Yamuna Jayanti:- The birthday of river Yamuna is celebrated every year on sixth day of summer Navratra. SANDRP has been publishing a blog highlighting the current situation of river. The Yamuna Nadi Mitra Mandli [YNMM (Friends of River Yamuna)] has contributed in previous efforts with current photos and videos. However this year on account of nationwide lockdown they were unable to send in pictures of bridges barrages from their areas.

The Yamuna Eco Scholar  (YES) of Rainbow Children Academy, Vikas Nagar were specially preparing for the day and had already conducted painting, quiz activities on River Yamuna and had plans for cloth bags distribution and Yamuna walk to mark the occasion which are withheld given Covid-19 epidemic. Here is a video report on the planned activities of YES.

To see previous blogs on Yamuna Jayanti, kindly see-

Yamuna Jayanti 2016: An Unforgettable River Journey Through Pictures..

2018: Happy Birth Day, Yamuna! In pics from Friends of Yamuna

Yamuna Jayanti 2019: Will the agony of the River & People speak in Elections?

Disclaimer:- The counting of bridges is primarily based on Google earth maps hence there could be changes in the names and their numbers also could go and down by few counts. The names of bridges in tabular format repeated are two lanes with separate super structures and pillars hence counted separately.   

End Notes:-

[i] http://cwc.gov.in/ybo/about_basin

[ii] http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/bridge-Yamuna-flood-plains-NGT-order.pdf

[iii] http://environicsindia.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Impact-Assessment-of-Bridges-and-Barrages-on-River-Yamuna.pdf

[iv] http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/bridge%20across%20Yamuna%20NGT.pdf 

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