Dams · Water

India’s Summer of Water Crisis in 2018

North India

HIMACHAL PRADESH Water scarcity leaves Shimla high and dry Residents in the city are reeling under acute water shortage for the last few days. They are getting rationed water supply after four-five days.“Hoteliers are paying private tankers Rs 2,600 for 6,000 litre water,” said Harnan Kukreja, president, Shimla Hoteliers’ Association. The Shimla Municipal Corporation is struggling to ration 21 MLD of water that was pumped from its major sources these days. The water availability per resident was just 5 litre as on May 25.

 The city needs 45 MLD water daily, but the water availability has come down from 29 MLD last week to 21 MLD on May 25, 2018. Guma, which has 20 MLD capacity, and Giri, which has 20 MLD capacity, could supply just 4 MLD and 14 MLD, respectively, revealed MC supply chart. Churat supplied 1.25 MLD, Chair (0.32 MLD) and Koti- Brandi (0.35 MLD).

Around 4-5 MLD water is getting wasted due to leakages in supply lines before it reaches MC storage tanks in the city. The state government and the MC have failed to compensate for the water that it used to get from the Ashwani khud, supply from where was suspended in 2015 following a jaundice outbreak in the city. http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/himachal/water-scarcity-leaves-shimla-high-and-dry/594998.html (The Tribune, 26 May 2018)

No drinking water available in Shimla for the7thconsecutive dayFaced with the scarcity of drinking water for the seventh consecutive day, residents of several parched localities of Shimla on May 27, threatened to put locks at the local Municipal Corporation (MC) as private tankers failed to fulfill the requirement.Local hospitals, both government and private, schools, hostels, including girl’s hostels of the schools, colleges and university such as Portmore, RKMV and Himachal Pradesh university and offices faced the water crisis. Several places have started emitting foul smell.

The water crisis has also forced some residents to leave Shimla, while the hoteliers also had to witness cancellation of bookings in on-going the tourist season. Over 35 localities were badly affected by the water scarcity and non-availability of drinking water. This is supposedly the worst ever crisis in the Shimla’s recent history.

The water crisis has hit the hotel industry hard as many claimed that they are getting the calls for cancellations. The hoteliers maintain that foot fall was down by 50 percent even during weekend. The hotels have put-up notices at their receptions advising the tourists to use minimum water.

“It’s an unusual situation if you look at past three years data. The water availability during summer plumed to 29 or 30 MLDs during 2015, 2016 and 2017. This year we are between 22 MLD or 23 MLDs. That makes it tough to match the demand,” said Rohit Jamwal, Commissioner SMC.

Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur admitted that there was a crisis of drinking water. “It’s because the feed sources/ rivers/ streams have gone dry. http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/shimla/shimla-goes-thirsty-no-drinking-water-available-in-city-for-seventh-day-5193371/ (The Indian Express, 27 May 2018)

People stand in a queue to collect drinking water at Shimla’s Mall Road on Sunday.

Shimla water crisis a result of mismanagement That High Court has also taken cognisance of the drinking water shortage and directed the Assistant Solicitor General to file an affidavit on the status of water augmentation schemes pending with the Centre and steps being taken regarding the delay in implementation. The court observed that there was no scarcity of water in the hill State, but it was poor management that was responsible for the drinking water shortage year after year. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/shimla-in-the-throes-of-a-water-crisis/article24008329.ece (The Hindu, 28 May 2018)

Is it Shimla’s WORST WATER CRISIS EVER? Residents of the state capital have taken to the social media to warn tourists against visiting the city and advising them to reschedule their itinerary in the wake of the worst-ever water crisis.“Please do not consume our water, if we get it in days to come. There is no water for the past one week. Please plan your trip to some other destination”, reads an advisory posted by a local resident on the social media.

Some of the hotels have posted messages on their social networking sites saying, “Please do not come to Shimla and those who have made advance booking in our hotel will get the full refund if they wish to make a cancellation request.”The Tourism Industry Stakeholders’ Association (TISA) and the Shimla Hotel and Restaurant Association (SHRA) is contemplating resorting to “No service, no bill” policy.

According to information, the price of a water tanker (12,000 litre) has gone up from Rs 2,500 to Rs 8,000.

With the beginning of summer vacation in schools in the plains from June 1, tourists will make a beeline for the city to get a relief from the scorching heat. Although water problem is not new for Shimla, it is for the first time that people are not getting it even on the 7th or 8thday.”http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/himachal/do-not-consume-our-water-locals-to-tourists/596463.html (The Tribune, 29 May 2018)

Op-Ed Thirsting ofr water in Shimla by Tikendra PanwarEx-Deputy Mayor of Shimla

Shimla city has supply from five major water sources — Gumma, Giri, Ashwini Khad, Churat and Seog. The overall installed capacity is 65 million litres per da (MLD) while the demand is approximately 45 MLD. Despite the higher installed capacity, the city never gets more than 35 MLD as average throughout the year. A lot of the water leaks out during pumping and distribution.

The other major problem is that Ashwini Khad, a major source, was contaminated in 2005 when a sewage treatment plant (STP) was constructed in Malyana, just 5 km upstream. Since then, there have been periodic breakouts of hepatitis. This source met the requirements of a quarter of the city’s population and its near-closure cannot be compensated even by an increase from Giri.  At present, not more than 2-3 MLD of water is being pumped into the city from Ashwini Khad.

The growth of the city is massive. From a population of 30,000, now the city has over 2,00,000 people with over 1 lakh entering and leaving the city every day. The city also has more than 40 lakh tourists visiting every year.

Climate change and its impact seem to be profound on the Shimla city water supply system. The winters were, by and large, dry; the rainfall was 80 per cent deficient. It rained in March and April. But the retention of water in these months is very less. The sources of water have gone 50 per cent below the average. The city is experiencing less snow and more rain, but of less duration.

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/comment/thirsting-for-water-in-shimla/596349.html (The Tribune, 29 May 2018)The advocacy for a long distance, highly capital, energy and carbon footprint heavy centralised option of mega water supply from Kol Dam for Shimla is clearly misplaced. Its clear the author has no value for local options from rain to local water bodies to treated sewage, leading to use of uncontaminated local sources.

UTTARAKHAND Haldwani faces acute water crisis, residents forced to drink dirty water Residents of Haldwani are struggling with irregular supply of water, which is often so dirty that it is way beyond safe limits for human consumption.Almost 70 percent of the town’s population is receiving polluted water, which the residents are forced to use and a lot of them, especially children are falling sick as a result of it. http://www.business-standard.com/multimedia/video-gallery/general/haldwani-faces-acute-water-crisis-residents-forced-to-drink-dirty-water-63786.htm (Business Standard, 7 May 2018)

Uttarakhand facing acute water crisis, at risk of more forest fires: Study Uttarakhand faced drought in 10 districts for two years from 2007-09 and with continuing scanty rainfall in winter, the state is likely to witness more severe water crisis and forest fires in the coming years. The findings were revealed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in its study, concluded in December 2017, on intensified Drill Down Vulnerability Risk Assessment (VRS).

Rashmi Bajaj, state project manager of UNDP, said, “The 2.6 lakh springs in the state accounts for 90% of drinking water. Due to continued deforestation it was found that discharges of 500 water supply sources including springs, streams, ponds etc have reportedly reduced by more than 50%. Climate change will further amplify reduction of local water resources.”https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/dehradun/uttarakhand-facing-acute-water-crisis-at-risk-of-more-forest-fires-study/articleshow/63190776.cms (The Times of India, 7 March 2018)

PUNJAB HARYANA Rapid fall in groundwater level in Punjab, Haryana The rapid rate at which groundwater levels have dipped across Punjab and Haryana has experts worried.The Central Ground Water Board has found that 82% of Punjab areas and 76% in Haryana have seen a substantial fall in the water level. This is based on the board’s data compiled between 2006 and 2015 followed by findings gathered in 2016 and 2017 for the two agrarian states.

Experts say earlier farmers followed the maize-wheat or sugarcane-maize-wheat cropping pattern but for the past four decades they have shifted to the wheat-paddy cycle, causing unprecedented exploitation of groundwater for irrigation. The increasing number of tubewells is proof of the worrying trend.As a solution, Nagar suggests an integrated water management strategy, including drip irrigation, besides change in cropping pattern and banning early plantation of paddy so that the monsoon run-off can be used to irrigate fields. https://www.hindustantimes.com/punjab/rapid-fall-in-groundwater-level-in-punjab-haryana/story-fIscV9WfuEo65g7xnKHohI.html (Hindustan Times, 25 May 208)

PUNJAB Water pollution is central issue in Shahkot The Shahkot constituency is home to two water bodies of the state – Chitti Bein and Kala Sanghian. However, the dumping of effluents from Phagwara industries into the Chitti Bein and toxins from Jalandhar industries into Kala Sanghian have left the water bodies polluted, leaving a trail of cancer, allergies and other diseases across the villages on the banks of the drains.

Water is central issue in Shahkot

The Kala Sanghian originates from Himmatpur village and ends at Malsian village, where it joins East (Chitti) Bein, which further falls into the Sutlej. At least 100 villages are located along its banks.Surjit Singh of Seechewal village says, “Earlier this month, my nephew died of heart attack. My elder brother has cancer and another nephew, a resident of Bhodlipur village near Malsian, died of cancer. For us water is the only issue. We want the party which addresses this problem.”

Environmentalist Seechewal said, “Villagers can’t stay here or marry because the water stinks and makes them sick. Of the 50 MLD capacity of STP for the Kala Sanghian drain, only 16 MLD is operational, while the rest untreated toxic water is flowing into drains. No other election issue — even unemployment — is relevant to us because employment is of use only when people are alive.” http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/water-is-central-issue-in-shahkot/592858.html (The Tribune, 22 May 2018)

Beas Molasses leak incident affects Malwa, drinking water supply The incident has now caused drinking water problem in Malwa region (already suffering from unsuitable groundwater) thus affecting potable water supply to hundreds of villages.Clean drinking water supply is scarce in Malwa in Punjab as a fallout of spillage of molasses into Beas River. Districts such as Muktsar, Bathinda, Mansa, Fazilka are getting drinking water supply from the water tanks of the water works department as the department has been told not to take the canal water for drinking purposes. Sources said the stored water would last six-seven days.”http://indianexpress.com/article/india/punjab-in-malwa-drinking-water-supply-hit-5186023/ (The Indian Express, 22 May 2018)

In Moga, untreated sewage flowing into water bodies Most of the sewage water in Moga city flows into stormwater drains, polluting the natural water bodies even as a sewage treatment plant was commissioned by the state government in 2013 at a cost of Rs 27 crore.Many households on the Sandhuana road and Bohna road direct their wastewater into open drains (natural/storm water bodies), thus causing foul smell in nearby areas.

The MC authorities has said the total capacity of the installed sewage treatment plant is 27 million litres per day (MLD), but the outflow of the wastewater has increased by about 5 to 10 MLD, which has created the problem.Mayor Akshit Jain said the STP was being run by the Punjab Water Supply and Sewerage Board, but the local body pays the running cost to the board.

The underground water of the city is already contaminated with uranium and traces of other heavy metals. The general house of the civic body had already passed a resolution five years ago to install reverse osmosis plants (RO) in all wards of the city so that people could get clean potable water, but the state government did not provide funds for the purpose.http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/in-moga-untreated-sewage-flowing-into-water-bodies/594043.html (The Tribune, 24 May 2018)

BBMB imposes 15 pc cut on water supply to Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan The Bhakra and Beas Management Board (BBMB) on May 18, 2018, following a meeting of Technical Committee, imposed a 15 per cent cut on the water being supplied to Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan from the Bhakra and Pong dams. The decision was taken because of low-level of water in the dams as also due to low inflows into the dams. Besides, the states have also been asked to be prepared for further curtailment of water supply, if the situation does not improve. http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/bbmb-imposes-15-pc-cut-on-water-supply-to-punjab-haryana-rajasthan-118051801211_1.html (Business Standard, 18 May 2018)

HARYANA Many Faridabad areas face potable water crisis Several parts of the city are facing shortage of drinking water.Several water ATMs (automatic dispensers) have been installed to meet the demand, but the major issue is still the quality of water being supplied in the city having a population of nearly 18 lakh.

 “The city was getting a supply of 220 MLD daily against the demand of 232 MLD,” said Raman Sharma, Superintending Engineer, Municipal Corporation (MC), Faridabad. He said 80 MLD was being supplied through 1,411 tubewells and 120 MLD was being supplied from 14 Ranney wells operating from the Yamuna riverbed in the district. He said 18 water ATMs had been installed that charge Re 1 per litre. “The MC has a fleet of 215 tankers that supply water in the areas facing the problem,” he added.

Mohammed Shayin, Commissioner, MC, said a total of 88 private tubewells operating illegally had been sealed in a recent drive to overcome the water crisis. He appealed the residents not use the drinking water for washing vehicles or for gardening purpose. http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/haryana/many-faridabad-areas-face-potable-water-crisis/592690.html (The Tribune, 22 May 2018)

Water Scarcity Kills Another Leopard In Gurgaon While humans require clean water, the animals make do with whatever source of water is available. However, they have limited resources and with increase in deforestation and other human activities, these limited resources are also getting depleted. In Gurgaon, a one-year-old female leopard had to fight to death for water.The leopard was found dead on May 16 morning at the Aravalli hills in Gurgaon with wildlife officers suspecting that a territorial fight with another such big cat in the parched region led to the casualty. https://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/water-scarcity-kills-another-leopard-in-gurgaon-345478.html (India Times, 16 May 2018)

Wasting water to cost you in Panchkula In a bid to supply sufficient water and curb wastage of water, the Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA) officials have decided to impose a ban on washing cars, courtyards and lawns. The drive will be carried in all sectors. The HUDA officials had already started a challan drive against wastage of potable water in the summer season on May 14. The drive will continue and the violators will be punished with a fine which can exceed Rs 2,000. Those misuse of water will be penalized, said HUDA officials. The water connection of three-time violators will be disconnected.However, in the case of overhead water tanks, pipes, cooler leakage, a warning notice will be served and action would be taken in future. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/wasting-water-to-cost-you-in-panchkula/articleshow/64181964.cms (The Times of India, 16 May 2018)

PANIPAT करीब 125 किलोमीटर तक यमुना नदी रेगिस्तानसी हो गई है हथिनीकुंडबैराजसेनिकलतेहीयमुनानालेमेंतब्दीलहोजातीहै।जैसे-तैसे 10 किलोमीटरकीयात्राकरयमुनानगरकोपारकरतीहै।हालातयेहैंकिकरनाल, पानीपतऔरसोनीपतमेंनदीपूरीतरहसूखचुकीहै।करीब 125 किलोमीटरतकनदीरेगिस्तान-सीहोगईहै।कहीं-कहींगड्‌ढोंमेंथोड़ाजलहै, परदूषितऔरकाला।स्नानतोदूरउसमेंआचमनभीसंभवनहींहै।

अपनों की अस्थियां सूखी यमुना में दबा रहे लोग, 2 महीने बाद पानी आने पर मिल सके मुक्ति

यमुनासूखनेकेबड़ेकारण– प्राकृ़तिकस्रोतघटनेसेनदीकोपानीनहींमिलरहा।अवैधखननकीवजहसेयमुनामेंबड़े-बड़ेगड्‌ढेहोगएहैंऔरवेनदीकीधाराकोरोकरहेहैं।

लुप्तहोचुकीसरस्वतीकीधाराकोतलाशनेकेलिएहरियाणासरकारहरमुमकिनकोशिशकररहीहै।एक्शनप्लानवबोर्डबनाकरइसकीअविरलधाराप्राप्तकरनेकीकोशिशचलरहीहै।लेकिनकृष्णकीप्रियवयमकीबहनमानीजानेवालीसदानीरायमुनाआजनीरविहीनहोगईहै।यहसिर्फप्राकृतिककारणोंसेनहींहुआहै।यमुनानगरसेलेकरसोनीपततकजिसतरहयमुनाकेसीनेकोरेतमाफियाछलनीकररहाहैउससेयहहालातबनेहैं।https://www.bhaskar.com/harayana/panipat/news/tragedy-of-the-dead-yamuna-5880215.html (Dainik Bhaskar, 25 May 2018)

CHANDIGARH Groundwater level in Chandigarh decreased 4 m in year: CGWB Report A new report, submitted to the Chandigarh Administration and Municipal Corporation on May 14, 2018, by the Central Ground Water Board, North western region, has found that in some locations in the city, the groundwater level decreased by 4 m in one year. There are 225 tubewells in the city which provide over 28 million gallons daily water to the city.http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chandigarh/findings-by-central-ground-water-board-groundwater-level-depleting-decreased-4-metre-in-year-says-report-5178363/ (The Indian Express, 16 May 2018)

DELHI DPCC report: Water at eight of 22 sewage plants fails test Dinesh Mohaniya, Delhi Jal Board (DJB) vice-chairperson, said he was not aware of the problem. A senior DJB official, however, said that several STPs have not been working as desired for a long time now, and DPCC reports have flagged this issue several times. As per CM statement Delhi is producing 450 MGD of treated water but only 89 MGD is being used. http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/dpcc-report-water-at-eight-of-22-sewage-plants-fails-test-5137879/ (The Indian Express, 15 April 2018)

Groundwater situation in Delhi “an extremely sad state of affairs”: Supreme Court A bench of Justice Madan B Lokur and Justice Deepak Gupta, which perused a report of the Central Ground Water Board on the status of groundwater level in Delhi from May 2000 to May 2017, said it “indicates an extremely sad state of affairs”. http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/groundwater-situation-in-delhi-semi-critical-supreme-court-5168967/ (The Indian Express, 9 May 2018) http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/dipping-groundwater-levels-in-city-worry-sc/article23817693.ece (The Hindu, 9 May 2018)

UTTAR PRADESH Ganga touches lowest level in Varanasi Patches of sand are visible in long stretches of Ganga in midstream as the water is drying up. This has raised concern among zoologists, environmentalists and Ganga activists who feel if the situation continues for long then it may lead to serious threat to flora and fauna of the national river.

Dry patches in a stretch mid-stream of river Ganga near Samane Ghat area.
Dry patches in a stretch mid-stream of river Ganga near Samane Ghat area.(HT Photo/Rajesh Kumar)

According to Central Water Commission, the minimum water level of River Ganga was recorded 58.27 metre on June 29, 2017, while on May 25 Ganga’s water level in Varanasi was recorded at 57.79 metres. District magistrate Yogeshwar Ram Mishra has recently written to the state government authorities for releasing water into the national river Ganga from Naraura or other dams.

Currently three cities, including Kanpur (600MLD), Allahabad (400 MLD) and Varanasi (400MLD), generate 1,400 MLD of effluents. It comprises industrial and domestic effluents. Of that, only 500 MLD is being treated and the remaining 900 mld of effluents goes untreated into River Ganga. https://www.hindustantimes.com/lucknow/heat-takes-toll-on-river-ganga-too/story-EwchXTo0JXvhqLXSsBJTzK.html (Hindustan Times, 26 May 2018)

AGRA Water tragedy: 25 years on, solution a dream A quarter century after 25 people died from drinking contaminated water supplied by the civic body, the Taj city continues to face an acute shortage of safe drinking water for its urban population of two million.On May 21, 1993, over two dozen people in Khatik Para, Ghatiya, Mandi Sayeed Khan areas died and over 200 were hospitalised after they consumed water from a tank in Sanjay Place commercial complex.

Over the years, the situation has not improved. People continue to consume piped water from two municipal water works which depend entirely on Yamuna for raw water.

“Unfortunately, the Yamuna river, now virtually a sewage canal, runs dry for most part of the year and what flows down is the sewer, domestic waste and effluents from upstream cities including Delhi,” says environmentalist Devashish Bhattacharya. https://www.thequint.com/hotwire-text/agra-water-tragedy-25-years-on-solution-a-dream (The Quint, 21 May 2018)

Agra water crisis; Yamuna touches minimum level Decrease in the quantity of water released from the Gokul barrage and a dry Yamuna, which is being nearly reduced to a sewage drain, residents in the city are facing acute water crisis for the past several weeks. The river touched the minimum level of 480 feet on May 2, 2018.

Officials said that in order to maintain uninterrupted water supply in the city, the Gokul barrage needs to release at least 2,000 cusecs but only 1,000 cusecs is being discharged since the past two weeks. Water treatment plants in the city have also not been able to function properly due to the poor quality of raw water from Yamuna.

Against the demand for 300 million litres per day (MLD), the Jal Sansthan is supplying around 250 MLD through the two water works stations at Jeevan Mandi and Sikandra. Yamuna water has not exceeded the 482 feet mark since the past one month, said Jal Sansthan officials.

The district’s groundwater level has depleted by nearly 7,00,000 litres everyday due to continuous extraction, said VK Upadhaya senior geophysicist at the groundwater department. With further depletion, hand-pumps are likely to stop working. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/agra/agra-reels-under-water-crisis-yamuna-touches-minimum-level/articleshow/64005828.cms (The Times of India, 2 May 2018)

Local MLA Yogendra Upadhyaya said, “We are trying to speed up the Ganga Jal project. The committee appointed by the Supreme Court has been handed over all the documents related to the project and we expect a clearance very soon.” The Rs. 3,000-crore, 130-km-long pipeline from Bulandshahr district will bring the water of the Ganges to the new Water Works at Sikandra. Jal Nigam officials say the project can now only be commissioned in August. The work is held up as the permission for chopping trees has been delayed.

Meanwhile, river activists have demanded desilting and dredging of the Yamuna riverbed ahead of the monsoon to open up the choked aquifers and create additional storage capacity.”Tons of plastic and polythene, waste leather cuttings from the shoe factories are preventing water seepage. The riverbed needs an urgent cleaning. Only then will the water level go up in the monsoon,” Harendra Gupta of the River Connect Campaign said. https://www.ndtv.com/agra-news/water-crisis-hits-agra-activists-demand-cleaning-of-yamuna-1844688 (NDTV, 30 April, 2018)

Women in villages around Agra bring water from afar due to acute shortage (Photo- Kamir)

Agra used to be a busy riverport since ancient times and the ‘Ghats’ on Yamuna bear testimony to those times. Elephants were used to unload the cargo from the boats plying between Agra and Delhi. The high gates of the riverside buildings on ‘Hathi Ghat’ lay credence to the story. Today, the Yamuna, that has the responsibility of quenching the thirst of over 2.6 million people of Agra, has almost lost the distinction of being called a river, being reduced to a sewage drain. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/once-capital-of-emperors-an-agra-hit-by-dry-yamuna-and-lack-of-handpumps-braces-for-tough-summer-1186551-2018-03-11 (India Today, 11 March 2018)

West India

MADHYA PRADESH 280 People Fall Ill After Drinking Contaminated Water Around 280 people have taken ill after drinking contaminated water in some parts of Sarni city in Betul district. The water was supplied to the affected areas by the Sarni municipality, while storage tanks in some of the areas was maintained by Western Coalfields Limited.https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/280-people-fall-ill-after-drinking-contaminated-water-in-madhya-pradesh-1854783 (NDTV, 20 May 2018)

In April 2018, villagers in Chhatarpur were drawing water from an old well with almost blackened water. Their only line of defense against bacteria and virus? Filtering the water using their clothes. http://zeenews.india.com/villagers-in-chhattisgarhs-dantewada-forced-to-drink-drain-water-2110338.html (Zee News, 22 May 2018)

Water scarcity in Katni,locals to collect water from temple Due to the water scarcity in the Katni district, the locals have to collect water coming down from a temple in the mountains.Meanwhile, in the Damoh district, the girls of government hostel have to travel four kilometers daily to use the toilet, due to water scarcity.The girls of the government hostel travel every day with their school teacher and other maids with buckets to use the toilet. https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/water-scarcity-in-mp-village-forces-locals-to-collect-water-from-temple/1317603 (Out Look, 29 May 2018)

Water Storage Out of 164 dams in Madhya Pradesh 65 dams have almost dried up; 39 tanks have 10 % or less water stock of their capacity.https://www.bloombergquint.com/global-economics/2018/05/13/madhya-pradesh-stares-at-acute-water-shortage#gs.mORmJxM(Bloomberg, 13 May 2018)

रायसेन में पानी की किल्‍लत हुई जानलेवा विदेश मंत्री सुषमा स्वराज के संसदीय क्षेत्र रायसेन जिले में लोग रोजाना जान हथेली पर लेकर पानी भरने जा रहे हैं. दअरसल जिले के सलामतपुर पंचायत के गांव मुस्काबाद में इस भीषण गर्मी के कारण सभी हैंडपंपो से पानी उतर गया है. इस कारण यहां रहने वाले सैकड़ों लोगों को रोज पानी भरने सलामतपुर रेलवे स्टेशन जाना पड़ रहा है.

ग्रामीणों का कहना है कि गांव में 6 महीने से समस्या बनी हुई है. भीषण गर्मी के कारण गांव के दो हैंडपंप भी अब नहीं दे रहे हैं. पीएचई विभाग को बार-बार शिकायत करने के बाद भी कोई यहां हैैंडपंप सुधारने नहीं आता. ऐसे में मजबूरी में पटरी पार कर ट्यूब बेल ओर सलामतपुर रेलवे स्टेशन से पानी भरकर लाना पड़ रहा है. गांव वालों में दहशत भी बनी हुई हैं कि बच्चों के साथ पटरी पार कर पानी लाने के दौरान कोई हादसा न हो जाए. http://zeenews.india.com/hindi/india/madhya-pradesh-chhattisgarh/water-crisis-is-going-worsed-in-madhya-pradesh-raisen-foreign-minister-sushma-swaraj/405324 (Zee News, 30 May 2018)

कुएं में उतर कर पानी निकाल रहीं महिलाएं मध्‍यप्रदेश के से जारी किए इस वीडियो में शाहपुरा के डिंडोरी में पानी के लिए लड़कियां कुएं में लगी ईटों पर पैर रखकर अंदर उतर रही हैं. नीचे का नजारा और भी विचलित कर देने वाला है. कुएं की तली में मौजूद पानी भी सूखने की कगार पर है. इसलिए गांव के लोग इस कुएं में उतर कर पानी निकालने को मजबूर हैं.

एक रिपोर्ट के मुताबिक बुंदेलखंड वह इलाका है जहां 60 फीसदी से ज्यादा जल स्त्रोत पूरी तरह सूख चुके हैं, फसलों की पैदावार मुश्किल हो गई है. रोजगार के अवसर नहीं हैं, 50 फीसदी से ज्यादा लोग पलायन कर गए हैं. गांव में अब सिर्फ बुजुर्ग और बच्चे ही ज्यादा बचे हैं. http://zeenews.india.com/hindi/india/madhya-pradesh-chhattisgarh/water-crisis-forces-women-in-mp-village-to-walk-1-kilometer-and-climb-down-well-shahpura/404171 (Zee News, 26 May 2018)

RAJASTHAN Pink City feels heat of water and fuel protests As per report drinking water is not available in 50% of slum areas and colonies of Jaipur. Over 150 colonies are reeling under water shortage. Due to water crisis, colony residents have staged protests at PHED offices over 100 times in the recent past. Jyoti Sharma, a resident of Walled City, said that for the past two months, they are not receiving water from the pipelines properly. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/pink-city-feels-heat-of-water-and-fuel-protests/articleshow/64362421.cms (The Times of India, 29 May 2018)

Video of Water Dept. engineer in Dholpur Rajasthan being beaten by villagers over unkept promise to eliminate water shortage. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTI6F1MNon0 (22 May 2018)

Bandi river’s water unfit for agricultural and domestic purpose A monitoring committee, appointed by the principal bench of National Green Tribunal, in its report of Apr 23, 2018 said that industrial pollutants from textile units in Pali being discharged into Bandi river have magnified the level of pollution & made the water unfit for agricultural & domestic use.

– The four-member committee — constituted by an NGT order of May 26, 2017 — visited Pali, located 70 km south-east of Jodhpur, and inspected the Common Effluent Treatment Plants and the pollution level in Bandi river. The committee comprising Dr Brij Gopal, an aquatic ecologist and former professor of environmental science at Jawaharlal Nehru University; Dr Rakesh Kumar Sharma from IIT Jodhpur’s department of chemistry; P Jagan from Central Pollution Control Board; and the member secretary of Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board. The report states that before the river enters Pali, the water quality is “very good without any trace of pollution from any visible source. It is only after the river enters Pali and crosses Mandia Road Industrial Area that it starts receiving pollutants from the industries.” https://www.hindustantimes.com/jaipur/bandi-river-s-water-unfit-for-agricultural-and-domestic-purpose-says-ngt-monitoring-committee/story-s1mTKw62x8S2YqLArEhMKM.html (Hindustan Times, 14 May 2018)

MAHARASHTRA 

चेकडैमोंमेंपानीनदारद,वन्यजीवबेहाल गर्मीकेदिनोंमेंपशुपक्षियोंववन्यजीवोंकेलिएपानीकेलिएकाशीवन्यजीवप्रभागकेचंद्रप्रभावन्यजीवबिहारनेचेकडैमकानिर्माणकराया।उद्देश्यथाकिबरसातकेदिनोंमेंचेकडैममेंपानीइकठ्ठाहोजाएगा जिसकाउपयोगगर्मीकेदिनोंमेंपशुपक्षीकरसकेंगे।लाखोंरुपयोंकीलागतसेचकियावनौगढ़केजंगलोंमेंकरीबएकदर्जनचेकडैमबनवाएगए।निर्माणकार्यमेंमानकोंकीअनदेखीकेचलतेयहचेकडैममात्रशोपीसबनकररहगए।बारिशकेदिनोंमेंहीइनडैममेंपानीठहरनहींपाता।वजहचेकडैमकेदीवालेंपानीरोकनेलायकनहींहैं।इनदिनोंवन्यजीवबिहारमेंहजारोंकीतादातमेंवन्यजीवकेअलावापशुपक्षीनिवासकरतेहैं।प्रचंडगर्मीकेचलतेइनकेसमक्षभोजनकेसाथहीपानीकीसख्तकिल्लतआड़ेआरहीहै।परिणामस्वरूपवन्यजीवोंकाआबादीकीओररूखहोरहाहै। https://www.jagran.com/uttar-pradesh/chandauli-no-water-in-check-dams-wild-animals-beehal-17983263.html (Dainik Jagran, 21 May 2018)

Indrayani River Pollution Packaged drinking water the lifeline for Alandi Thousands of residents of Aland in Pune have no option but to rely on packaged drinking water supplied by private players as the authorities are unable to fix water hyacinth pollution in Indrayani river. “There are at least 100 such suppliers, who deliver jerrycans of 20-litre capacity at the doorstep of residents who can afford their service. They charge anything between Rs 20 and Rs 40 for a jar and collect bills every month. This has become a lucrative business,” Amol said a resident of Alandi.

The Alandi Municipal Council recently advised residents of the town to boil tap water before consumption. Oxygen level in the drinking water drawn from the river has reduced drastically due to the high level of hyacinth in the Indrayani river. Due to the hyacinth, the river’s ecosystem was disturbed as fish do not get adequate oxygen. In fact, a large number of dead fish was found near the river’s banks a few days ago.

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The pipeline project from Bhama Askhed dam is yet to be sanctioned by the government. Municipal council officials said the Bhama Askhed option will not serve the purpose. “The Bhama Askhed project is controversial as the farmers are opposed to it. We don’t know how many years it will take to resolve it. It is need of the hour to explore other feasible options to find a solution to the water issue,” an official said.

“It will be difficult for the municipal corporation to complete and maintain the pipeline project because of its skeletal manpower. The government needs to hire staffers to meet the future requirements. We don’t even have a sanitary inspector,” a senior municipal corporation official said.https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/packaged-drinking-water-the-lifeline-for-alandi/articleshow/64263647.cms (The Times of India, 22 May 2018)

MUMBAI Tankers are fast depleting groundwater The authorities have no control on groundwater extraction from private wells in Mumbai, putting the city’s water security at risk. Water tanker owners and housing societies who sell groundwater from bore wells on their premises are taking advantage of the city’s absence of watershed mapping.

The National Green Tribunal has now admitted a petition seeking Rs 222 crore as compensation towards the state for causing environmental damage through commercial exploitation of groundwater from two private wells in south Mumbai.

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The period of groundwater extraction by the two wells as mentioned in the petition is 11 years. Going by this, experts estimate that illegal business worth Rs 33,300 crore has been generated over a decade through 300 private wells present on the city’s residential premises (200 of the wells are in south Mumbai). The petition, admitted by the NGT’s Pune bench, is by RTI activist Sureshkumar Dhoka.

The owners of the wells, as mentioned in the petition, are the “Pandya brothers”, who live in Cward (Bhuleshwar, Kalbadevi and a part of Marine Drive). The NGT has already ordered the closure of the two wells. The matter is set to be heard on May 28. If an order favouring the petition is passed, it will be the country’s biggest such payout.

Meanwhile, Mumbai Water Tanker Association president Jasbir Bira said tanker owners don’t mind taking permission, but they operate in the first place because large parts of the city experience water shortage.https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/tankers-are-fast-depleting-mumbais-groundwater/articleshow/64087345.cms (The Times of India, 9 May 2018)

GUJARAT 1209 Challans issued over aquifer recharge Ahmadabad using the surface and groundwater resources seems reluctant to ensure Rain Water Harvesting: It gets 900 MLD from Narmada Dam and 350 MLD from Mahi Dam.

Over the past week, zonal offices of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) have slapped 1,209 notices on multi-storey buildings, asking them to show their groundwater percolating wells. These wells were made mandatory in 2001 for rainwater harvesting, according to the general development control regulations (GDCR), before building use permissions were issued by the AMC. In the posh West and New West zones alone, the AMC has issued some 730 notices.

According to GDCR norms, all building units larger than 1,000 square metres, must have a rainwater tank with adequate capacity. For buildings with ground coverage more than 80sqm but below 500sqm, a percolation pit or bore recharge is mandatory, while one percolating well must be provided for every 4000sqm of land area.

For plots bigger than 4,000sqm where alternatives to multiple percolating wells are required, the AMC has provided an option of constructing a single water retention pond with a minimum capacity of 3 lakh litres with a percolating well.

A Central Ground Water Board (CWGB) report from 2016-17 revealed that Ahmedabad sucks out 77% of the groundwater that is recharged in the monsoon. The CWGB has already pressed the alarm, saying that groundwater levels inAhmedabad have plummeted by between 85m and 125m in the last four decades, pushing Ahmedabad into the semi-critical zone. A 2015 CWGB report said that Ahmedabad district has 20,717 deep groundwater drawing sources for private irrigation and to augment domestic water needs. These include 6,686 tubewells and 13,414 dug wells. This wanton exploitation of groundwater has put enormous pressure on the water table.”https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/1209-notices-issued-over-aquifer-recharge/articleshow/64212751.cms (The Times of India, 18 May 2018)

South India

KARNATAKA Residents protest against irregular water supply Fed up with irregular and erratic water supply during peak summer, the residents of Dharwad staged a protest in front of the Karnataka Urban Water Supply and Drainage Board office on May 21. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hubballi/residents-protest-against-irregular-water-supply/articleshow/64262913.cms (The Times of India, 22 May 2018)

CAUVERY BASIN Drinking water crisis looming large A serious drinking water problem is looming large over Bengaluru and other Cauvery dependent areas as the storage in Krishnaraja Sagar reservoir has dropped to “below dead storage” level.The water level in the reservoir was 69.55 feet, as against the maximum level of 124.8 ft., on May 22. The dead storage level of the reservoir near Srirangapatna is 74 ft. and it is not advisable to pump water once the level drops to 68 ft., according to Irrigation Department officials.

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Pumping water from the reservoir, when it has dipped to 68 ft. would affect the safety of the reservoir, besides the impact on the ecology, said an official at Cauvery Neeravari Nigam Ltd. The ‘live storage’ in the KRS was 2.48 thousand million cubic feet (tmcft) on May 22, as against the maximum live storage of 45.051 tmcft.A similar situation arose last year when the water level stood at 68.6 ft. on May 22, 2017. The reservoir is the major drinking water source for Mysuru and Bengaluru. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/drinking-water-crisis-looming-large/article23963234.ece (The Hindu, 23 May 2018)

BANGALORE Water mismanagement Faucets are running dry and the lakes that once nurtured the southern city of Bangalore and its nearly 10 million residents are either parched or fetid with industrial waste and toxic effluents.Bangalore’s water woes have been in the making for some time. Years of unplanned urbanisation, rapid population growth and poor management of water resources have now reached a critical point.

A 2016 study by the Energy and Wetlands Research Group at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore showed that the city’s water bodies declined by 80 percent between 1973 and 2016.Over that same period, the concrete area in the city, once known for its gardens and lakes, went up by more than 1,000 percent. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/water-mismanagement-leaves-indias-silicon-valley-parched/bracing-for-another-thirsty-summer/slideshow/64188428.cms (The Economic Times, 16 May 2018)

Another essential water body destroyed Bengaluru, once known for its efficient lakes-tanks system to store the generous rainwater it receives around the year, is now staring at Day Zero.This is due to the steady destruction of the well-planned water body systems by Bengaluru authorities and private builders alike in the name of “development”, causing groundwater levels to deplete.

The latest victim of this reckless “development” is a heritage Kalyani (temple tank) of the 100-year-old Gali Anjaneya Temple at Gottigere, as part of the Bannerghatta Road (between JG Mara Circle and Koli Farm Gate) widening project.The step well structure is essential for rainwater harvesting and maintaining the groundwater level. Local citizen groups, which have been maintaining the tank and carrying out regular cleaning drives, are fiercely opposed to sacrificing the lake.

For the past three days, the temple tank, which is right beside the BBMP office, has been filled with construction debris by the contractor involved in the road- widening project.Mahendra Jain, Additional Chief Secretary (Urban Development), said that he has instructed the Bommanahalli Zonal Commissioner to seek an alternative to destroying the water body, after being alerted by concerned citizens. But BBMP officials on the ground say that the widening project would not be effective if that particular stretch is left out.

Meanwhile, another bunch of concerned citizen-activists, instead of enjoying a lazy Sunday, took to the streets to protest a similar incident in Whitefield. A human chain was formed by residents holding placards and chanting slogans demanding the rescue and revival of the Pattandur Agrahara Lake. https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/even-bengaluru-stares-water-crisis-another-essential-water-body-killed-81984 (The News Minute, 27 May 2018)

HYDERABAD Algae chokes Hyderabad’s drinking water lifelines, sparks alarm

– Osmansagar and Himayatsagar, two major drinking water sources for twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, are now infested with algal growth. The presence of unwanted vegetation indicates that the drinking water sources are gradually losing their pristine environment.A thick blanket of weeds and algae has formed in the shores of the lakes as water has been impounded for long.Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, which controls the lakes, has not released water downstream in the last 18 months.

– About one MGD of water is lost in evaporation.Lack of outflow has led to stagnation of water in the lakes resulting in algal bloom. The water quality in the two lakes has been deteriorating over the years.Since their construction about 90 years ago, Osmansagar and Himayatsagar reservoirs have been catering to the needs to lakhs of people.

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– Their prominence took a back seat after the HMWSSB took up Krishna and Godavari projects. The “lifeline reservoirs’ have an assured supply of 45 million gallons of water per day. Water from the reservoirs was utilised till 2016. Krishna and Godavari water is now supplied to areas that once got supplies from Osmansagar and Himayatsagar.https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/algae-chokes-hyderabads-drinking-water-lifelines-sparks-alarm/articleshow/64347902.cms (The Times of India, 28 May 2018)

TELANGANA Groundwater table receding alarmingly in Vikarabad district The groundwater table has receded further in Vikarabad district up to 20 meters in 30 per cent area of the district signaling danger if water conservation measures are not initiated immediately, according to a groundwater department report. The population of Vikarabad, Tandur, Parigi and Kodangal Assembly constituencies is put at 9.27 lakh. A total of 4,809 drinking water schemes are quenching their thirst leading to groundwater table receding. 

Compared to April last year, groundwater table in 10 per cent of the mandals receded more than 20 meters and in 20 per cent of the mandals the table has gone to depths of 15 meters. Vikarabad district figured among the 18 districts where the groundwater table receded. In four mandals of the neighbouring Mahabubnagar district the water level is abysmally low.http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/Telangana/2018-05-27/Groundwater-table-receding-alarmingly-in-Vikarabad-district-Report-/384575 (Hans India, 27 May 2018)

TAMIL NADU “Forced To Buy Water”, Say Locals As Groundwater Level Dips With rising temperature and intense heat condition, Rameshwaram is seeing a drop in the groundwater level.”We are forced to buy a pot of water for Rs. 5,” say locals. https://www.ndtv.com/tamil-nadu-news/tamil-nadu-rameshwaram-locals-forced-to-buy-water-as-groundwater-level-dips-1849605 (NDTV, 9 May 2018)

MADURAI Depleting water table A brand new reverse osmosis water treatment plant in Tahsildar Nagar’s Maruthupandiar Street lies locked up and reeks of disuse.The plant, costing ₹9.98 lakh, was inaugurated by MLA V. V. Rajan Chellappa on April 18. It was installed on the main road so that all residents of Tahsildar Nagar could get access to drinking water. The move backfired because the area, despite being located close to Vandiyur tank, has only a trickle of groundwater left. “In order to make the water treatment plant work, we need to install two new borewells, thus impacting the groundwater level of houses close to the plant,” says an official.

Tahsildar Nagar and its neighbouring localities — Yagappa Nagar and Anbu Nagar — are at the heart of water crisis in Madurai. The area, which became part of the Corporation in 2011, now receives water from the Cauvery Integrated Water Supply Scheme. A total of 50 borewells have been sunk in Vandiyur tank to supply water through pipelines to three other areas located close to Tahsildar Nagar. However, the scorching summer has rendered the borewells useless as there is no groundwater.

An official from PWD says that groundwater level has slipped between 122 and 130 feet in 2018 because of lack of percolation. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Madurai/a-tale-of-depleting-water-table/article23900150.ece (The Hindu, 16 May 2018)

East India

CHHATTISGARH Villagers in Dantewada forced to drink drain water Villagers in Dantewada have been forced to dig water from near a drain. Although the water is visibly murky, locals say they can either die of thirst or consume the dirty water and use it for cleaning, cooking and their other basic needs.

Even if additional handpumps are installed, there may not be a guarantee of access to clean water. In February, reports from Chhattisgarh’s Balrampur highlighted how ‘red water’ from hand pumps had been causing skin diseases and aches. Many here have been suffering muscular problems and have skin outbursts, and blame contaminated water from handpumps for the woes. http://zeenews.india.com/villagers-in-chhattisgarhs-dantewada-forced-to-drink-drain-water-2110338.html (Zee News, 22 May 2018) https://www.ndtv.com/tamil-nadu-news/tamil-nadu-rameshwaram-locals-forced-to-buy-water-as-groundwater-level-dips-1849605 (NDTV, 9 May 2018)

ODISHA Acute water shortage has also hit Odisha’s Mayurbhanj district, women have to travel to far off places. While the wells in the localities have gone dry, the stand posts also do not provide water. https://www.ndtv.com/tamil-nadu-news/tamil-nadu-rameshwaram-locals-forced-to-buy-water-as-groundwater-level-dips-1849605 (NDTV, 9 May 2018)

Inter State Water Disputes

HARYANA- RAJASTHAN Bharatpur parched as Haryana, UP farmers ‘steal’ Yamuna water Irrigation department officials are worried about Bharatpur not getting water from the Gurgaon canal because of theft by farmers in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.The officials raised their concern at the meeting of Upper Yamuna River Board in Delhi on May 18. The board officials agreed to form vigilance teams to stop the theft of water.Five states — Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh – signed a pact on May 12, 1994, for release 1,280 cusecs of Yamuna water through the Gurgaon canal. According to the pact between Rajasthan and Haryana governments, Bharatpur receives 500 cusecs of water through Gurgaon canal from Haryana.

Two canals carrying Yamuna water enter Bharatpur – the first is Gurgaon canal, which enters Bharatpur through Jurahara in the Mewat region; and the second is the Bharatpur feeder, which enters through Ageng in Uttar Pradesh’s Agra.The Gurgaon canal from Haryana is 52 km long.

The Central Water Commission proposed Rs 444 crore for construction of the 110-km-long canal from Jurahara in Bharatpur border of Haryana to Rupwas on the Uttar Pradesh border during the pact. The proposal had been sent to the commission for its approval. The first phase of the canal starts at Jurahara located on the Haryana border to Sinsini village and second from Sinsini to Rupwas.

Farmers in Bharatpur are waiting for canal water for a long time for cultivation. About 70% of groundwater in the district is saline and unfit for irrigation.Meanwhile desperate for water, farmers in Bharatpur are setting up bore tube wells on the dry canal beds for water. The irrigation department gives them notices from time to time. https://www.hindustantimes.com/jaipur/bharatpur-parched-as-haryana-up-farmers-steal-yamuna-water/story-usX4LFHE9CtQSMQW9p9mYM.html (Hindustan Times, 22 May 2018)

HARYANA- DELHI Yamuna board not doing its job: Supreme Court Pulling up the Upper Yamuna River Board (UYRB) for “not doing” its job of regulating river water supply among the beneficiary states, the Supreme Court on May 11, 2018 directed it to give suggestions or take a decision on the question of water sharing between Haryana and the capital. http://indianexpress.com/article/delhi/yamuna-board-not-doing-its-job-supreme-court-5173437/ (The Indian Express, 12 May 2018)

Capital suffers With Haryana missing its water share deadline on May 21, the capital continues to witness 40-50 MGD shortage in supply and complaints continue to pour in from areas in south and west Delhi.Delhi receives 375 MGD water from Haryana through three sources — the Yamuna, the carrier-lined canal (CLC) and the Delhi sub-branch.

The core of the dispute lies in calculating the water obligation and deciding which state should get the benefit of the water losses stopped by CLC, a concretised pucca canal. “Haryana is arguing that it should be calculated on the basis of the amount of water released at the barrage. The Yamuna, due to its width and other factors, witnesses 50% water loss while the CLC losses are just 5%. As Delhi paid for the canal, we should get the benefit,” Delhi Jal Board vice-chairman Dinesh Mohania said.DJB agreed that no written deal exists but argues it is getting water from Haryana on the same basis for the last 22 years. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/capital-suffers-as-haryana-misses-water-share-deadline/articleshow/64263681.cms (The Times of India, 22 May 2018)

National

MoWR warn of acute water crisis in India The Union Ministry of Water Resources has warned that water conservation must be implemented otherwise the water crisis in the country will become acute. A secret note sent to the Union cabinet secretary, which is in the possession of this newspaper, said that India has 17 per cent of the world’s population, 15 per cent of its cattle population but only 4 per cent of the world’s renewable water resources and 2.44 per cent of geographical area.

The last assessment of dynamic ground water resources puts the total annual replenishable ground water resources in the country at 447 BCM. Out of 6,584 assessment units in the country 1,034 units have been categorised as over exploited, 253 units are critical and 681 units are semi critical. The union water resources department said that water conservation and recharge has become extremely necessary on account of the stress of groundwater exploitation due to rapid urbanisation, deforestation, impact of change in climate and rainfall pattern. https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/230518/experts-warn-of-acute-water-crisis-in-india-water-conservation-must-b.html (Deccan Chronicle, 230518)

Compiled by SANDRD, ht.sandrp@gmail.com

One thought on “India’s Summer of Water Crisis in 2018

  1. I developed the DAM WITHOUT RIVER TECHNOLOGY. I applied it for patent. We can construct artificial water reservoir in each permanent drought facing village of capacity 50 million liters water. This village will become permanent self sufficient for water.
    Don’t worry about less rain fall and drought.
    This artificial water reservoir is designed to collect and store water up to it’s capacity in negligible rainfall also.

    We have to work in following three steps:-

    1) I will not demand any royalty for this work .
    2) The respective Gram Panchayat should provide required land and look after the water distribution in future.
    3) Fund required for construction work should be provided by the respective Government Department.

    No drought no water shortage in future in India.
    Your’s
    Mr. Ramchandra Gajanan Tulaskar

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