Gujarat · Madhya Pradesh · Maharashtra · Ministry of Water Resources · Narmada

Why is Government of India indulging in this unwarranted & unnecessary act of raising SSP Dam height?

Why this hurry to submerge tribals and farmers under

Narmada waters?

In a shocking decision[1] on June 12, 2014, the Narmada Control Authority (NCA), headed by the secretary, Union Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), & which includes secretary of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF) and senior officials of four states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan, have sanctioned, in what The Hindu called “emergency meeting” ( installation of 17 m high gates on the Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada River in Gujarat, taking the effective current height of the dam from 121.92 m to 138.68 m. This has been done after the Rehabilitation sub group (RSG) of the Narmada Control Authority, chaired by secretary, Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE) has also cleared this decision. This decision implies submergence of thousands of ha of land and displacement of lakhs of tribals and farmers in three states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, when their rehabilitation, as legally required, has not been done.

Strangely, the government that talks about transparency, had nothing to report on its website (either PIB website or MWR website till 12 noon on June 6, 2014) about this decision, who will be affected, reason for such emergency decision or basis for the decision.

Sardar Sarovar Dam

More importantly, Gujarat & Rajasthan can get their share of water from Narmada river without this height increase and are not able to use even 20% of the water already available to them at the current height. This is clearly unnecessary, unjust and unwarranted decision that is not likely to have even legal sanction. Only additional benefit that increase in height can provide is additional water storage, which will imply about 10-20% additional power generation, in which Gujarat’s share is only 16%: 57% share goes to MP and 27% share goes to Maharashtra.

There is some misinformation that this height increase is required to take the water to Kutch, Saurashtra and North Gujarat. This is completely wrong. The Full Supply Level of Narmada Main Canal is 110 m and once water enters this level in the dam, water can be taken to the canals. Once water enters the main canal, it can be taken to the Kutch, Saurashtra and N Gujarat. Based on information we have obtained from SSNNL under RTI, we have seen that Gujarat can get its full share of 9 Million Acre Feet of water at current height and no height increase is necessary. Had Gujarat built the necessary canal distribution system with branch canals, distributary canals, minors, sub minors and field canals to fields in Kutch, Saurashtra and N Gujarat, it could have taken Narmada water to these regions even eight years ago. To suggest that height increase will achieve this is clearly spreading misinformation. Similarly, as far as providing drinking water to the drought prone areas is concerned, height increase is not required to complete that.

Gujarat, in the meantime have increased the share of drinking water (1 MAF) and industrial Water (0.22 MAF) from 0.87 MAF for these combined sectors, at the cost of irrigation, without any participatory or transparent process. (see new share in this report in The Hindu on June 12, 2014:

The claim of Gujarat government that cost of the project has increased because height of the dam has not been raised is completely wrong. The cost of the project is going up (TOI has reported on June 13, 2014 ( that the project has already spent Rs 65369 Crores and ultimate cost is likely to be Rs 90 000/-) because Gujarat government has not been able to complete the canal network and has also been paying huge amounts to service the debt.

It is shocking that all the officials of the central and state governments and all the concerned ministers (including Water Resources Minister Ms Uma Bharti, Environment Minister Mr Prakash Javdekar, Social Justice Minister Mr Thaawar Chand Gehlot, Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan in addition to Gujarat and MP Chief Ministers) have towed the line dictated by Prime Minister Mr Modi and Gujarat Government in this regard, within two weeks of new government taking over. No additional rehabilitation could have been accomplished in these two weeks, which seems to indicate that a political decision has been taken, without considering the ground realities, merits or justification of the decision or necessity of the decision. This does not bode good for the functioning of the new government.

It should be noted here that the installation of gates will take three years, and in any case, for closing the gates, the project will need clearance from Environment Sub Group, RSG and NCA again. Secondly, the gates have been lying in the yard of Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) for many years and a question mark was raised about the safety of the gates in a recent meeting of the Sardar Sarovar Construction Advisory Committee. Now, as The Times of India reported  on June 13, 2014 (, even former Gujarat Government officials are raising the issue of old technology of 30 year old gates when new technology gates would be also be safer. In view of all this, it may have been better, as Narmada Bachao Andolan has suggested, for the government to first take proper stock of the situation rather than rush into this “emergency” decision on the eve of the monsoon, when no work is in any case possible in monsoon.

It is also shocking that even before the RSG and NCA were to take the decision; Gujarat Government was already busy preparing for celebratory meeting at the Dam site. This shows that the functioning of the statutory bodies has been taken for granted and their decision was pre-determined, as directed by higher authorities.

Gujarat can get its water share without increase in height The new government wants to take the SSP Dam from its current height of 121.92 m to its final design height of 138.68 m. Firstly, there are serious doubts if this height increase is required since it can be shown that Gujarat and Rajasthan can get their share of water from Narmada without this increase in height. Secondly, Gujarat is not even in a position to use more than 20% of the water it already gets from the river at current height of the dam for the purposes for which the project was designed: providing water for the drought affected regions in Kutch, Saurashtra & North Gujarat. On the other hand, urban centres, industrials areas, SEZs, cosmetic river beautification schemes have appropriated a large chunk of SSP waters without legal, democratic sanction or justification. Gujarat really does not have a case for increasing the height of SSP Dam.

Moreover, this will also entail such massive additional submergence, displacement and disruption of lives of tribals and farmers that it is sure to create huge opposition. Narmada Bachao Andolan estimates that an additional 2.5 lakh people will face unjust submergence in three states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The just rehabilitation of already affected people is far from complete, in fact, most of the affected population has not been given minimum 2 ha of land required under the Narmada Tribunal award and subsequent accepted policies.

Mr Modi during his tenure of 13 years as Chief Minister of Gujarat failed to complete the canal network of SSP in the drought prone areas in whose name the project has always been justified. It needs to be noted that the agitation against SSP did not stop Gujarat government from going ahead with construction of canal network. It was not for lack of finances that SSP could not complete the canal network. SSP has been getting largest quantum of money from the Government of India’s Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme ever since the AIBP scheme started in 1996. This support to SSP from AIBP was clearly wrong since SSP was never the last mile project for which AIBP was meant, but the big dam lobby in Union Water Resources ministry and Gujarat government were hand in glove in this misallocation of AIBP money for SSP. In fact, Mr Modi arm-twisted the Planning Commission in 2011-12 to sanction the escalated costs for SSP even when the issues raised by Planning Commission officers remained unanswered.

It is the ineptitude of Gujarat Government under Mr Modi that is on show as to why it could not complete the canal network on drought prone areas in Gujarat. Mr Modi would do well to remember the reasons for that failure before he considers the mega projects agenda as Prime Minister.

Moreover, on SSP, the issues of completing repairs of the damages the Sardar Sarovar dam structure suffered four years ago & related issue of safety of the dam are yet to be resolved[2] and Gujarat has embarked on building another Garudeshwar Dam in immediate downstream without any impact assessments, participatory democratic process or required sanctions[3]. The legality of the Garudeshwar Dam work stands challenged in the National Green Tribunal by the affected tribals.

Conclusion This unnecessary, unwarranted and unjust decision is not going to go down well with any right thinking person. The new government at the center is clearly treading a path that is bound to raise huge uproar and make the common person on street question: for whom and for what purpose is this government working. It would be in best interest of everyone if the government was so confident, to get this debated in the Parliament.

Himanshu Thakkar (





3 thoughts on “Why is Government of India indulging in this unwarranted & unnecessary act of raising SSP Dam height?

  1. How much of the canal is yet to be built and the total expenditure yet to be done on the project and already done so far?


    1. Hi Nandini,

      The expenses of the project currently estimated at Rs 65369 cr (See TOI today), final cost is likely to be Rs 90 000 Cr says TOI. Sanctioned cost is Rs 39240 crores, it seems since that is the figure on SSNNL website, see link below.

      Regarding how much canal network is done, here is the status from

      2.3.2 BRANCH CANALS
      Out of total 38 Branch Canals off taking from NMC, the works of 30 Branch canals are competed, works of 8 branch canals are under progress. Detailed status of Branch Canals is shown as below;
      2.3.3 Work of all the 22 Branch Canals off taking from NMC CH. 0 to 263 Km. is completed. Saurashtra Branch Canal (104 km) and its seven Sub Branches
      (a) The works of Saurashtra Branch Canal are completed in all respect with lining and gate works.
      (b) Work of five Pumping stations on the Saurashtra Branch Canal is almost completed and commissioned.
      (c) The status of six sub branches on S.B.C. is as under:
      · Maliya sub branch canal having length 137 km is completed, water is being flown for drinking purpose since-2002. Works of distributaries and minors are under progress.
      · Vallabhipur sub branch canal having length 119 km is completed. Works for constructing distributaries and minors in the command area of VBC are under progress. Water is being flown for drinking purpose since-2005.
      · Limbdi sub branch canal earthwork is nearly completed in full length (118.76 km). Remaining EW, Structures of Limbdi sub branch canal 0.0 to 118.76 km is in progress. Water is flown upto 73 Km. Work of constructing distributaries and minors for the command area of LBC are in progress.
      . Dhrangadhra sub branch canal earthwork & structures is nearly completed in 0.0 to 124 km. The lining & structures are under progress Works of distributaries and minors for the whole command area of DBC are under progress. The water has been flown in Dhrangadhra Sub-branch Canal has been flown upto tail end.
      · Botad sub branch canal earth work is completed in full reach 109 km. The works of constructing EW, structure, CC lining and Service Road between Ch. 0 to 109 km. are under progress. Works of distributaries & minors for the command area of BBC are under progress. Water has been flown upto 20 km.
      · Morbi sub branch canal, the work of earthwork, structures & lining for reach 0 to 107.52 km is in progress. Works of distributaries & minors are under progress. Branch Canals off taking from NMC Ch. 263 to 368 km
      (a) Works of Viramgam-I, Viramgam-II, Goraiya, Kharaghoda and Jinjuwada branch canals are completed with gate works.
      (b) The remaining works of Bolera Branch Canal between Ch. 0 to 14.25 km are in progress. The works of Bolera Branch Canal between ch. 14.25 to 25.39 km is completed.
      (c) The remaining works of Rajpura Branch Canal Ch. 0 to 42.21 km are in progress.
      (d) The remaining work of Amarapura Branch Canal Ch. 0 to 55 km are under progress. These works are planned to be completed by June-2013.
      (e) The works of Gates of Bolera, Rajpura and Amrapura Branch Canals are in completed and gate works on Amrapura Branch Canal are in progress and planned to be completed by June – 2013. Branch Canals Off-taking from NMC Ch. 368 to 458 km
      (a) The works of Vejpur, Malsan Branch Canals along with distributaries & lining of Madka branch canal are under progress. These works are planned to be completed by 2013-14.
      (b) For the works of Dhima & Gadsisar Branch Canals is under progress. The work are planned to be completed by 2013-14.
      (c) Works of Radhanpur & Madaka branch canal are completed. The works of distribution system are under progress. Kachchh Branch Canal (360 km)
      (a) Ch 0 to 40.00 km (Package I, II,III): Works are almost completed and water is released in KBC in this reach for testing.
      (b) Ch. 40.00 to 190 km- The works are under progress.
      (c) Ch. 190 to 360 km: The works have been awarded between ch 201.206 km to 231.022 km, Ch 250.423 km to 263.620 km and Ch 354.570 km to 357.150 km of KBC. Works of remaining length in this reach are under tendering process.
      d) Above works of KBC are likely to be completed by 2014-15.
      Works of all 201 distributaries completed in the reach 0 to 144.500 km of NMC.
      Out of 67 distributaries, 56 are completed in reach 144.500 to 263.265 km. The works of remaining distributaries are in progress.
      In Chainage 263.265 to 368.431 Km. out of total 98 distributaries and 2 sub-branch canals, the works of 51 istributaries are completed and 46 Distributaries and 2 Sub branch canals are in progress. One distributory is at tender stage. The works of distributaries is planned to be completed by 2013-14. The works of 36 nos. minors having CCA of 332416 ha are under progress.
      In Chainage 368.431 km to 458.31 km ot NMC, the Works of 111 distributaries have been awarded. Out of which the works of 6 distributaries have been completed and works of 105 distributaries are under progress. The works of remaining distributaries are yet to be started. These works are planned to complete by 2013-14.
      2.5 Command Area Development
      The total Culturable Command Area of the project is 1845655 ha. Out of which 664313 ha has been developed upto Minor Level and 369260 ha has been developed upto Sub minor level upto current month. Work of Command Area development in additional 941981 ha is under progress.
      Water Users Associations registered are as under:
      Phase-I : 1191
      Phase-II : 425

      Hope this answers your question,


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